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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.3 2004/02/24 16:14:55 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 </p>
21
22 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 <p>
27 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42 network.
43 </p>
44
45 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
47 </pre>
48
49 </body>
50 </subsection>
51 <subsection>
52 <title>Optional: Mounting /dev</title>
53 <body>
54
55 <p>
56 Knoppix users (and people that install Gentoo from an installation medium that
57 does not use DevFS) should now bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure. If
58 you use one of our LiveCDs you can skip this step.
59 </p>
60
61 <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
62 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
63 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
64 </pre>
65
66 </body>
67 </subsection>
68 <subsection>
69 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
70 <body>
71
72 <p>
73 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
74 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
75 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
76 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
77 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
78 </p>
79
80 <p>
81 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
82 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
83 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
84 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
85 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
86 </p>
87
88 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
89 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
90 # <i>env-update</i>
91 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
92 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
93 </pre>
94
95 <p>
96 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
97 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
98 has some sections left :-)
99 </p>
100
101 </body>
102 </subsection>
103 <subsection>
104 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <p>
108 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
109 download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
110 for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
111 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
112 </p>
113
114 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
115 # <i>emerge sync</i>
116 <comment>(In case you are unable to use rsync, use "emerge-webrsync" which
117 downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you)</comment>
118 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
119 </pre>
120
121 <p>
122 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
123 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
124 on during the installation.
125 </p>
126
127 </body>
128 </subsection>
129 <subsection id="configure_USE">
130 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
131 <body>
132
133 <p>
134 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
135 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
136 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
137 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
138 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
139 (X-server).
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
144 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
145 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
146 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
151 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
152 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
153 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
154 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
155 tweaked for GNOME.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
160 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
161 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
162 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
163 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
164 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
165 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
166 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
167 </p>
168
169 <p>
170 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
171 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
172 description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
173 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
174 </p>
175
176 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
177 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
178 </pre>
179
180 <p>
181 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
182 and CD Recording support:
183 </p>
184
185 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
186 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
187 </pre>
188
189 <pre caption="USE setting">
190 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
191 </pre>
192
193 </body>
194 </subsection>
195 <subsection>
196 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
201 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
202 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
203 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
204 </p>
205
206 </body>
207 </subsection>
208 </section>
209 <section>
210 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
211 <body>
212
213 <p>
214 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
215 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
216 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
217 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
218 </p>
219
220 <ul>
221 <li>
222 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
223 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
224 to Stage2</uri>)
225 </li>
226 <li>
227 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
228 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
229 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
230 </li>
231 <li>
232 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
233 steps. If you want to use GRP, continue with <uri
234 link="#preparing_grp">Optional: Preparing for GRP</uri>. Otherwise continue
235 with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
236 </li>
237 </ul>
238
239 </body>
240 </section>
241 <section>
242 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
243 <subsection>
244 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
245 <body>
246
247 <p>
248 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
249 </p>
250
251 <p>
252 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
253 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
254 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
255 </p>
256
257 <p>
258 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
259 Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
260 Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
261 we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
262 </p>
263
264 <p>
265 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
266 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
267 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
268 </p>
269
270 </body>
271 </subsection>
272 <subsection>
273 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
274 <body>
275
276 <p>
277 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
278 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
279 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
280 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
281 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
282 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
283 </p>
284
285 <p>
286 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
287 firing up the bootstrap script.
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
291 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
292 </pre>
293
294 <p>
295 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
296 </p>
297
298 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
299 # <i>unset USE</i>
300 </pre>
301
302 </body>
303 </subsection>
304 <subsection>
305 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
306 <body>
307
308 <p>
309 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
310 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
311 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
312 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
313 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
314 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
315 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
316 </p>
317
318 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
319 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
320 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
321 </pre>
322
323 </body>
324 </subsection>
325 <subsection>
326 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
327 <body>
328
329 <p>
330 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
331 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
332 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
333 finish.
334 </p>
335
336 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
337 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
338 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
339 </pre>
340
341 <p>
342 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
343 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
344 work fast:
345 </p>
346
347 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
348 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
349 </pre>
350
351 <p>
352 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
353 to Stage3</uri>.
354 </p>
355
356 </body>
357 </subsection>
358 </section>
359 <section>
360 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
361 <subsection>
362 <title>Introduction</title>
363 <body>
364
365 <p>
366 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
367 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
368 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
373 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
374 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
375 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
376 </p>
377
378 </body>
379 </subsection>
380 <subsection>
381 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
386 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
387 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
388 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
389 </p>
390
391 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
392 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
393 </pre>
394
395 </body>
396 </subsection>
397 <subsection>
398 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
399 <body>
400
401 <p>
402 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
403 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
404 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
405 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
409 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
410 </pre>
411
412 </body>
413 </subsection>
414 <subsection>
415 <title>Building the System</title>
416 <body>
417
418 <p>
419 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
420 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
421 complete.
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption = "Building the System">
425 # <i>emerge system</i>
426 </pre>
427
428 <p>
429 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
430 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
431 </p>
432
433 </body>
434 </subsection>
435 </section>
436 <section id="preparing_grp">
437 <title>Optional: Preparing for GRP</title>
438 <subsection>
439 <title>Introduction</title>
440 <body>
441
442 <p>
443 If you are booted from a x86 or ppc CD-1 LiveCD you can relax and continue with
444 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri> as the installation
445 of prebuilt packages happens at the very end of the installation.
446 </p>
447
448 <p>
449 If you are booted from a different architecture LiveCD and you want to use the
450 prebuilt packages provided by the LiveCD, continue with <uri
451 link="#copying_from_livecd">Copying over the GRP packages</uri>.
452 </p>
453
454 <p>
455 If you want to use the prebuilt packages provided by a Gentoo mirror, continue
456 with <uri link="#grp_downloads">Configuring Portage for GRP Downloads</uri>.
457 </p>
458
459 </body>
460 </subsection>
461 <subsection id="copying_from_livecd">
462 <title>Copying over the GRP packages</title>
463 <body>
464
465 <p>
466 You should now copy over the packages onto your filesystem so that Portage is
467 able to use them. First of all, open a second terminal by pressing
468 <c>Alt-F2</c>. This is needed as we need to work from the LiveCD, not from the
469 chrooted environment you're currently working in.
470 </p>
471
472 <p>
473 You should be greeted by a root prompt (<c>#</c>). Copy over the packages using
474 the following commands:
475 </p>
476
477 <pre caption="Copy over precompiled packages">
478 # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/All</i>
479 # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/packages/All/* /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/All/</i>
480 </pre>
481
482 <p>
483 After this step has completed, return to the chrooted environment by pressing
484 <c>Alt-F1</c>.
485 </p>
486
487 <p>
488 Now pay close attention! Your Portage snapshot is in place and the GRP packages
489 are ready to be used. However, Portage doesn't automagically use them unless you
490 tell it to. Luckily, this is hardly difficult: every time you are asked to
491 install a package using <c>emerge</c>, you must add <c>--usepkg</c> as an
492 option:
493 </p>
494
495 <pre caption="Example for Installing a GRP Package">
496 <comment>(Example without GRP)</comment>
497 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
498
499 <comment>(Example with GRP)</comment>
500 # <i>emerge --usepkg vanilla-sources</i>
501 </pre>
502
503 <p>
504 That's all there is to it. Just don't forget to add <c>--usepkg</c>. Now
505 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
506 </p>
507
508
509 </body>
510 </subsection>
511 <subsection id="grp_downloads">
512 <title>Configuring Portage for GRP Downloads</title>
513 <body>
514
515 <p>
516 First of all, you need to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and define
517 the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c> variable so that it points to the server from which
518 you want to download the GRP packages. Please check our <uri
519 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> for the available mirrors.
520 </p>
521
522 <pre caption="Editing /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf">
523 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
524 </pre>
525
526 <pre caption="Setting the PORTAGE_BINHOST variable">
527 PORTAGE_BINHOST="ftp://some.mirror.com/pub/gentoo/grp/2004/athlon-xp"
528 </pre>
529
530 <p>
531 Save and exit (by pressing Ctrl-X and confirming). With this in place, you must
532 now pay close attention. Portage will not automagically download the GRP
533 packages if you don't instruct it to. However, this isn't hard: every time you
534 are asked to install a package using <c>emerge</c>, you must add
535 <c>--getbinpkg</c> as an option:
536 </p>
537
538 <pre caption="Example for Downloading GRP Packages">
539 <comment>(Example without downloading GRP)</comment>
540 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
541
542 <comment>(Example with downloading GRP)</comment>
543 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg vanilla-sources</i>
544 </pre>
545
546 <p>
547 That's all there is to it. Just don't forget to add <c>--getbinpkg</c>. Now
548 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
549 </p>
550
551 </body>
552 </subsection>
553 </section>
554
555 </sections>

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