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Don't have the users run etc-update during the installation process. Too many
users that do tend to overwrite the configuration files they just created and
then complain about this on #gentoo.

etc-update isn't necessary during the installation, but it is important for
people to know about it. We therefore refer the user to the part on
configuration file protection so that, once they've finished their installation,
they can read up on it.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.29 2004/03/02 20:23:06 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 </p>
21
22 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 <p>
27 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42 network.
43 </p>
44
45 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
47 </pre>
48
49 </body>
50 </subsection>
51 <subsection>
52 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
53 <body>
54
55 <p>
56 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
57 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
58 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
59 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
60 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
65 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
66 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
67 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
68 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
69 </p>
70
71 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
72 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
73 # <i>env-update</i>
74 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
75 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
76 </pre>
77
78 <p>
79 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
80 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
81 has some sections left :-)
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 <subsection>
87 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
92 download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
93 for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
94 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
95 </p>
96
97 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
98 # <i>emerge sync</i>
99 <comment>(In case you are unable to use rsync, use "emerge-webrsync" which
100 downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you)</comment>
101 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
102 </pre>
103
104 <p>
105 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
106 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
107 on during the installation.
108 </p>
109
110 </body>
111 </subsection>
112 <subsection id="configure_USE">
113 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
114 <body>
115
116 <p>
117 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
118 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
119 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
120 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
121 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
122 (X-server).
123 </p>
124
125 <p>
126 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
127 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
128 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
129 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
130 </p>
131
132 <p>
133 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
134 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
135 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
136 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
137 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
138 tweaked for GNOME.
139 </p>
140
141 <p>
142 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
143 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
144 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
145 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
146 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
147 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
148 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
149 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
154 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
155 description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
156 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
160 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
161 </pre>
162
163 <p>
164 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
165 and CD Recording support:
166 </p>
167
168 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
169 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
170 </pre>
171
172 <pre caption="USE setting">
173 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
174 </pre>
175
176 </body>
177 </subsection>
178 <subsection>
179 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
180 <body>
181
182 <p>
183 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
184 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
185 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
186 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
187 </p>
188
189 </body>
190 </subsection>
191 </section>
192 <section>
193 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
194 <body>
195
196 <p>
197 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
198 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
199 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
200 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
201 </p>
202
203 <ul>
204 <li>
205 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
206 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
207 to Stage2</uri>)
208 </li>
209 <li>
210 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
211 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
212 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
213 </li>
214 <li>
215 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
216 steps. If you want to use GRP, continue with <uri
217 link="#preparing_grp">Optional: Preparing for GRP</uri>. Otherwise continue
218 with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
219 </li>
220 </ul>
221
222 </body>
223 </section>
224 <section>
225 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
226 <subsection>
227 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
228 <body>
229
230 <p>
231 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
232 </p>
233
234 <p>
235 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
236 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
237 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
238 </p>
239
240 <p>
241 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
242 Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
243 Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
244 we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
245 </p>
246
247 <p>
248 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
249 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
250 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
251 </p>
252
253 </body>
254 </subsection>
255 <subsection>
256 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
257 <body>
258
259 <p>
260 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
261 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
262 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
263 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
264 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
265 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
266 </p>
267
268 <p>
269 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
270 firing up the bootstrap script.
271 </p>
272
273 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
274 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
275 </pre>
276
277 <p>
278 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
282 # <i>unset USE</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 </body>
286 </subsection>
287 <subsection>
288 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
289 <body>
290
291 <p>
292 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
293 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
294 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
295 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
296 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
297 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
298 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
302 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
303 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
304 </pre>
305
306 </body>
307 </subsection>
308 <subsection>
309 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
310 <body>
311
312 <p>
313 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
314 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
315 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
316 finish.
317 </p>
318
319 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
320 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
321 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
326 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
327 work fast:
328 </p>
329
330 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
331 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
332 </pre>
333
334 <p>
335 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
336 to Stage3</uri>.
337 </p>
338
339 </body>
340 </subsection>
341 </section>
342 <section>
343 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
344 <subsection>
345 <title>Introduction</title>
346 <body>
347
348 <p>
349 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
350 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
351 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
352 </p>
353
354 <p>
355 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
356 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
357 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
358 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
359 </p>
360
361 </body>
362 </subsection>
363 <subsection>
364 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
365 <body>
366
367 <p>
368 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
369 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
370 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
371 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
375 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 </body>
379 </subsection>
380 <subsection>
381 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
386 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
387 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
388 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
389 </p>
390
391 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
392 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
393 </pre>
394
395 </body>
396 </subsection>
397 <subsection>
398 <title>Building the System</title>
399 <body>
400
401 <p>
402 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
403 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
404 complete.
405 </p>
406
407 <pre caption = "Building the System">
408 # <i>emerge system</i>
409 </pre>
410
411 <p>
412 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
413 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
414 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
415 link="?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
416 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
417 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
418 </p>
419
420 </body>
421 </subsection>
422 </section>
423 <section id="preparing_grp">
424 <title>Optional: Preparing for GRP</title>
425 <subsection>
426 <title>Introduction</title>
427 <body>
428
429 <p>
430 If you are booted from a x86 or ppc CD-1 LiveCD you can relax and continue with
431 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri> as the installation
432 of prebuilt packages happens at the very end of the installation.
433 </p>
434
435 <p>
436 If you are booted from a different architecture LiveCD and you want to use the
437 prebuilt packages provided by the LiveCD, continue with <uri
438 link="#copying_from_livecd">Copying over the GRP packages</uri>.
439 </p>
440
441 <p>
442 If you want to use the prebuilt packages provided by a Gentoo mirror, continue
443 with <uri link="#grp_downloads">Configuring Portage for GRP Downloads</uri>.
444 </p>
445
446 </body>
447 </subsection>
448 <subsection id="copying_from_livecd">
449 <title>Copying over the GRP packages</title>
450 <body>
451
452 <p>
453 You should now copy over the packages onto your filesystem so that Portage is
454 able to use them. First of all, open a second terminal by pressing
455 <c>Alt-F2</c>. This is needed as we need to work from the LiveCD, not from the
456 chrooted environment you're currently working in.
457 </p>
458
459 <p>
460 You should be greeted by a root prompt (<c>#</c>). Copy over the packages using
461 the following commands:
462 </p>
463
464 <pre caption="Copy over precompiled packages">
465 # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/All</i>
466 # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/packages/All/* /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/All/</i>
467 </pre>
468
469 <p>
470 After this step has completed, return to the chrooted environment by pressing
471 <c>Alt-F1</c>.
472 </p>
473
474 <p>
475 Now pay close attention! Your Portage snapshot is in place and the GRP packages
476 are ready to be used. However, Portage doesn't automagically use them unless you
477 tell it to. Luckily, this is hardly difficult: every time you are asked to
478 install a package using <c>emerge</c>, you must add <c>--usepkg</c> as an
479 option:
480 </p>
481
482 <pre caption="Example for Installing a GRP Package">
483 <comment>(Example without GRP)</comment>
484 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
485
486 <comment>(Example with GRP)</comment>
487 # <i>emerge --usepkg vanilla-sources</i>
488 </pre>
489
490 <p>
491 That's all there is to it. Just don't forget to add <c>--usepkg</c>. Now
492 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
493 </p>
494
495
496 </body>
497 </subsection>
498 <subsection id="grp_downloads">
499 <title>Configuring Portage for GRP Downloads</title>
500 <body>
501
502 <p>
503 First of all, you need to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and define
504 the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c> variable so that it points to the server from which
505 you want to download the GRP packages. Please check our <uri
506 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> for the available mirrors.
507 </p>
508
509 <pre caption="Editing /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf">
510 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
511 </pre>
512
513 <pre caption="Setting the PORTAGE_BINHOST variable">
514 PORTAGE_BINHOST="ftp://some.mirror.com/pub/gentoo/grp/2004/athlon-xp"
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 Save and exit (by pressing Ctrl-X and confirming). With this in place, you must
519 now pay close attention. Portage will not automagically download the GRP
520 packages if you don't instruct it to. However, this isn't hard: every time you
521 are asked to install a package using <c>emerge</c>, you must add
522 <c>--getbinpkg</c> as an option:
523 </p>
524
525 <pre caption="Example for Downloading GRP Packages">
526 <comment>(Example without downloading GRP)</comment>
527 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
528
529 <comment>(Example with downloading GRP)</comment>
530 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg vanilla-sources</i>
531 </pre>
532
533 <p>
534 That's all there is to it. Just don't forget to add <c>--getbinpkg</c>. Now
535 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
536 </p>
537
538 </body>
539 </subsection>
540 </section>
541
542 </sections>

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