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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.34 2004/04/20 16:25:26 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 </p>
21
22 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 <p>
27 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 completely optional, the default values suffice.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42 network.
43 </p>
44
45 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
47 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 </body>
51 </subsection>
52 <subsection>
53 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
58 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
59 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
60 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
61 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
62 </p>
63
64 <p>
65 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
66 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
67 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
68 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
69 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
70 </p>
71
72 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
73 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
74 # <i>env-update</i>
75 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
76 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
77 </pre>
78
79 <p>
80 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
81 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
82 has some sections left :-)
83 </p>
84
85 </body>
86 </subsection>
87 <subsection>
88 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
89 <body>
90
91 <p>
92 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
93 download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
94 for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
95 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
96 </p>
97
98 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
99 # <i>emerge sync</i>
100 <comment>(In case you are unable to use rsync, use "emerge-webrsync" which
101 downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you)</comment>
102 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
103 </pre>
104
105 <p>
106 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
107 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
108 on during the installation.
109 </p>
110
111 </body>
112 </subsection>
113 <subsection id="configure_USE">
114 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
115 <body>
116
117 <p>
118 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
119 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
120 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
121 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
122 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
123 (X-server).
124 </p>
125
126 <p>
127 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
128 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
129 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
130 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
135 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
136 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
137 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
138 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
139 tweaked for GNOME.
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
144 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
145 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
146 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
147 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
148 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
149 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
150 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
151 </p>
152
153 <p>
154 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
155 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
156 description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
157 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
158 </p>
159
160 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
161 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
162 </pre>
163
164 <p>
165 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
166 and CD Recording support:
167 </p>
168
169 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
170 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
171 </pre>
172
173 <pre caption="USE setting">
174 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
175 </pre>
176
177 </body>
178 </subsection>
179 <subsection>
180 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
181 <body>
182
183 <p>
184 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
185 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
186 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
187 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
188 </p>
189
190 </body>
191 </subsection>
192 </section>
193 <section>
194 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
195 <body>
196
197 <p>
198 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
199 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
200 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
201 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
202 </p>
203
204 <ul>
205 <li>
206 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
207 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
208 to Stage2</uri>)
209 </li>
210 <li>
211 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
212 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
213 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
214 </li>
215 <li>
216 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
217 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
218 Kernel</uri>
219 </li>
220 </ul>
221
222 </body>
223 </section>
224 <section>
225 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
226 <subsection>
227 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
228 <body>
229
230 <p>
231 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
232 </p>
233
234 <p>
235 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
236 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
237 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
238 </p>
239
240 <p>
241 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
242 Collection and several other key system programs.
243 </p>
244
245 <p>
246 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
247 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
248 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
249 </p>
250
251 </body>
252 </subsection>
253 <subsection>
254 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
255 <body>
256
257 <p>
258 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
259 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
260 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
261 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
262 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
263 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
264 </p>
265
266 <p>
267 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
268 firing up the bootstrap script.
269 </p>
270
271 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
272 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
273 </pre>
274
275 <p>
276 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
277 </p>
278
279 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
280 # <i>unset USE</i>
281 </pre>
282
283 </body>
284 </subsection>
285 <subsection>
286 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
287 <body>
288
289 <p>
290 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
291 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
292 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
293 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
294 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
295 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
296 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
297 </p>
298
299 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
300 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
301 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
302 </pre>
303
304 </body>
305 </subsection>
306 <subsection>
307 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
308 <body>
309
310 <p>
311 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
312 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
313 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
314 finish.
315 </p>
316
317 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
318 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
319 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
320 </pre>
321
322 <p>
323 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
324 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
325 work fast:
326 </p>
327
328 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
329 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
330 </pre>
331
332 <p>
333 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
334 to Stage3</uri>.
335 </p>
336
337 </body>
338 </subsection>
339 </section>
340 <section>
341 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
342 <subsection>
343 <title>Introduction</title>
344 <body>
345
346 <p>
347 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
348 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
349 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
350 </p>
351
352 <p>
353 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
354 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
355 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
356 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
357 </p>
358
359 </body>
360 </subsection>
361 <subsection>
362 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
363 <body>
364
365 <p>
366 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
367 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
368 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
369 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
370 </p>
371
372 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
373 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
374 </pre>
375
376 </body>
377 </subsection>
378 <subsection>
379 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
380 <body>
381
382 <p>
383 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
384 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
385 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
386 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
387 </p>
388
389 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
390 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
391 </pre>
392
393 </body>
394 </subsection>
395 <subsection>
396 <title>Building the System</title>
397 <body>
398
399 <p>
400 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
401 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
402 complete.
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption = "Building the System">
406 # <i>emerge system</i>
407 </pre>
408
409 <p>
410 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
411 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
412 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
413 link="?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
414 </p>
415
416 <p>
417 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
418 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
419 </p>
420
421 </body>
422 </subsection>
423 </section>
424
425 </sections>

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