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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.43 2004/08/02 15:54:00 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 </p>
21
22 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 <p>
27 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 completely optional, the default values suffice.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42 network.
43 </p>
44
45 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
47 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 </body>
51 </subsection>
52 <subsection>
53 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
58 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
59 chrooted environment.
60 </p>
61
62 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
63 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
64 </pre>
65
66 </body>
67 </subsection>
68 <subsection>
69 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
70 <body>
71
72 <p>
73 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
74 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
75 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
76 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
77 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
78 </p>
79
80 <p>
81 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
82 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
83 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
84 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
85 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
86 </p>
87
88 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
89 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
90 # <i>env-update</i>
91 * Caching service dependencies...
92 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
93 </pre>
94
95 <p>
96 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
97 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
98 has some sections left :-)
99 </p>
100
101 </body>
102 </subsection>
103 <subsection>
104 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <p>
108 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
109 download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
110 for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
111 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
112 </p>
113
114 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
115 # <i>emerge sync</i>
116 </pre>
117
118 <p>
119 Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
120 command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
121 downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
122 protocol.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
126 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
127 </pre>
128
129 <p>
130 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
131 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
132 on during the installation.
133 </p>
134
135 </body>
136 </subsection>
137 <subsection id="configure_USE">
138 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
139 <body>
140
141 <p>
142 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
143 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
144 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
145 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
146 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
147 (X-server).
148 </p>
149
150 <p>
151 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
152 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
153 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
154 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
155 </p>
156
157 <p>
158 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
159 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
160 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
161 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
162 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
163 tweaked for GNOME.
164 </p>
165
166 <p>
167 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
168 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
169 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
170 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
171 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
172 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
173 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
174 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
179 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
180 description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
181 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
182 </p>
183
184 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
185 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
186 </pre>
187
188 <p>
189 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
190 and CD Recording support:
191 </p>
192
193 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
194 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
195 </pre>
196
197 <pre caption="USE setting">
198 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
199 </pre>
200
201 </body>
202 </subsection>
203 <subsection>
204 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
205 <body>
206
207 <p>
208 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
209 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
210 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
211 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
212 </p>
213
214 </body>
215 </subsection>
216 </section>
217 <section>
218 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <p>
222 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
223 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
224 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
225 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
226 </p>
227
228 <ul>
229 <li>
230 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
231 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
232 to Stage2</uri>)
233 </li>
234 <li>
235 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
236 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
237 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
238 </li>
239 <li>
240 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
241 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
242 Kernel</uri>
243 </li>
244 </ul>
245
246 </body>
247 </section>
248 <section>
249 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
250 <subsection>
251 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
252 <body>
253
254 <p>
255 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
256 </p>
257
258 <p>
259 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
260 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
261 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
262 </p>
263
264 <p>
265 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
266 Collection and several other key system programs.
267 </p>
268
269 <p>
270 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
271 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
272 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
273 </p>
274
275 </body>
276 </subsection>
277 <subsection>
278 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
279 <body>
280
281 <p>
282 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
283 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
284 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
285 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
286 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
287 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
288 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
292 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
293 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
294 </pre>
295
296 </body>
297 </subsection>
298 <subsection id="bootstrap">
299 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
300 <body>
301
302 <p>
303 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
304 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
305 takes quite some time to finish.
306 </p>
307
308 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
309 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
310 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
311 </pre>
312
313 <p>
314 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
315 to Stage3</uri>.
316 </p>
317
318 </body>
319 </subsection>
320 </section>
321 <section>
322 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
323 <subsection>
324 <title>Introduction</title>
325 <body>
326
327 <p>
328 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
329 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
330 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
331 </p>
332
333 <p>
334 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
335 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
336 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
337 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
338 </p>
339
340 </body>
341 </subsection>
342 <subsection>
343 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
344 <body>
345
346 <p>
347 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
348 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
349 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
350 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
351 </p>
352
353 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
354 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
355 </pre>
356
357 </body>
358 </subsection>
359 <subsection>
360 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
361 <body>
362
363 <p>
364 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
365 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
366 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
367 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
368 </p>
369
370 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
371 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
372 </pre>
373
374 </body>
375 </subsection>
376 <subsection>
377 <title>Building the System</title>
378 <body>
379
380 <p>
381 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
382 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
383 complete.
384 </p>
385
386 <pre caption = "Building the System">
387 # <i>emerge system</i>
388 </pre>
389
390 <p>
391 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
392 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
393 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
394 link="?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
395 </p>
396
397 <p>
398 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
399 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
400 </p>
401
402 </body>
403 </subsection>
404 </section>
405
406 </sections>

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