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Fri Aug 13 13:34:29 2004 UTC (9 years, 8 months ago) by swift
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Okay, turning back to the "old" profile system. The thread on -dev@ doesn't give
me a good feeling about cascading profiles (pvdabeel sais that it needs some
updates, beejay sais it needs testing, solar sais the old one is obsoleted and
should be removed, zhen sais an updated catalyst needs to be pushed).

So this doesn't feel like "yes, switch them all over" just yet (especially since
this is a arch-wide part of our installation instructions).

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.46 2004/08/09 14:45:06 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 </p>
21
22 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 <p>
27 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 completely optional, the default values suffice.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42 network.
43 </p>
44
45 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
47 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 </body>
51 </subsection>
52 <subsection>
53 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
58 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
59 chrooted environment.
60 </p>
61
62 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
63 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
64 </pre>
65
66 </body>
67 </subsection>
68 <subsection>
69 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
70 <body>
71
72 <p>
73 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
74 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
75 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
76 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
77 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
78 </p>
79
80 <p>
81 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
82 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
83 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
84 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
85 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
86 </p>
87
88 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
89 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
90 # <i>env-update</i>
91 * Caching service dependencies...
92 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
93 </pre>
94
95 <p>
96 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
97 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
98 has some sections left :-)
99 </p>
100
101 </body>
102 </subsection>
103 <subsection>
104 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <p>
108 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
109 download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
110 for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
111 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
112 </p>
113
114 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
115 # <i>emerge sync</i>
116 </pre>
117
118 <p>
119 Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
120 command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
121 downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
122 protocol.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
126 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
127 </pre>
128
129 <p>
130 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
131 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
132 on during the installation.
133 </p>
134
135 </body>
136 </subsection>
137 <subsection id="configure_USE">
138 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
139 <body>
140
141 <p>
142 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
143 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
144 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
145 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
146 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
147 (X-server).
148 </p>
149
150 <p>
151 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
152 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
153 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
154 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
155 </p>
156
157 <p>
158 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
159 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
160 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
161 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
162 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
163 tweaked for GNOME.
164 </p>
165
166 <p>
167 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
168 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
169 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
170 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
171 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
172 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
173 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
174 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
179 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
180 description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
181 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
182 </p>
183
184 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
185 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
186 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
187 </pre>
188
189 <p>
190 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
191 and CD Recording support:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
195 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
196 </pre>
197
198 <pre caption="USE setting">
199 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
200 </pre>
201
202 </body>
203 </subsection>
204 <subsection>
205 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
206 <body>
207
208 <p>
209 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
210 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
211 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
212 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
213 </p>
214
215 </body>
216 </subsection>
217 </section>
218 <section>
219 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
220 <body>
221
222 <p>
223 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
224 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
225 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
226 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
227 </p>
228
229 <ul>
230 <li>
231 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
232 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
233 to Stage2</uri>)
234 </li>
235 <li>
236 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
237 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
238 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
239 </li>
240 <li>
241 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
242 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
243 Kernel</uri>
244 </li>
245 </ul>
246
247 </body>
248 </section>
249 <section>
250 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
251 <subsection>
252 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
253 <body>
254
255 <p>
256 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
257 </p>
258
259 <p>
260 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
261 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
262 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
263 </p>
264
265 <p>
266 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
267 Collection and several other key system programs.
268 </p>
269
270 <p>
271 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
272 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
273 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
274 </p>
275
276 </body>
277 </subsection>
278 <subsection>
279 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
280 <body>
281
282 <p>
283 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
284 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
285 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
286 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
287 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
288 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
289 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
290 </p>
291
292 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
293 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
294 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
295 </pre>
296
297 </body>
298 </subsection>
299 <subsection id="bootstrap">
300 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
301 <body>
302
303 <p>
304 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
305 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
306 takes quite some time to finish.
307 </p>
308
309 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
310 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
311 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
312 </pre>
313
314 <p>
315 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
316 to Stage3</uri>.
317 </p>
318
319 </body>
320 </subsection>
321 </section>
322 <section>
323 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
324 <subsection>
325 <title>Introduction</title>
326 <body>
327
328 <p>
329 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
330 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
331 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
332 </p>
333
334 <p>
335 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
336 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
337 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
338 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
339 </p>
340
341 </body>
342 </subsection>
343 <subsection>
344 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
345 <body>
346
347 <p>
348 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
349 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
350 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
351 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
352 </p>
353
354 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
355 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
356 </pre>
357
358 </body>
359 </subsection>
360 <subsection>
361 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
366 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
367 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
368 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
372 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
373 </pre>
374
375 </body>
376 </subsection>
377 <subsection>
378 <title>Building the System</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <p>
382 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
383 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
384 complete.
385 </p>
386
387 <pre caption = "Building the System">
388 # <i>emerge system</i>
389 </pre>
390
391 <p>
392 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
393 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
394 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
395 link="?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
396 </p>
397
398 <p>
399 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
400 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
401 </p>
402
403 </body>
404 </subsection>
405 </section>
406
407 </sections>

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