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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.49 2004/09/27 12:31:09 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 </p>
21
22 <warn>
23 An error within mirrorselect might make it output garbage after the
24 GENTOO_MIRRORS statement. Please open <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path>
25 and remove the garbage at the end of the GENTOO_MIRRORS statement if applicable.
26 </warn>
27
28 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
29 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 <p>
33 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
34 completely optional, the default values suffice.
35 </p>
36
37 </body>
38 </subsection>
39 <subsection>
40 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
41 <body>
42
43 <p>
44 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
45 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
46 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
47 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
48 network.
49 </p>
50
51 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
52 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
53 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
54 </pre>
55
56 </body>
57 </subsection>
58 <subsection>
59 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
60 <body>
61
62 <p>
63 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
64 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
65 chrooted environment.
66 </p>
67
68 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
69 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
70 </pre>
71
72 </body>
73 </subsection>
74 <subsection>
75 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
76 <body>
77
78 <p>
79 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
80 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
81 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
82 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
83 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
88 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
89 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
90 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
91 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
92 </p>
93
94 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
95 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
96 # <i>env-update</i>
97 * Caching service dependencies...
98 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
99 </pre>
100
101 <p>
102 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
103 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
104 has some sections left :-)
105 </p>
106
107 </body>
108 </subsection>
109 <subsection>
110 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
111 <body>
112
113 <p>
114 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
115 download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this
116 for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
117 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
118 </p>
119
120 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
121 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
126 command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
127 downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
128 protocol.
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
132 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
133 </pre>
134
135 <p>
136 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
137 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
138 on during the installation.
139 </p>
140
141 </body>
142 </subsection>
143 <subsection id="configure_USE">
144 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <p>
148 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
149 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
150 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
151 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
152 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
153 (X-server).
154 </p>
155
156 <p>
157 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
158 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
159 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
160 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
161 </p>
162
163 <p>
164 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
165 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
166 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
167 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
168 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
169 tweaked for GNOME.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
174 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
175 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
176 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
177 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
178 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
179 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
180 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
181 </p>
182
183 <p>
184 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
185 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
186 description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
187 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
188 </p>
189
190 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
191 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
192 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
197 and CD Recording support:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
201 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
202 </pre>
203
204 <pre caption="USE setting">
205 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
206 </pre>
207
208 </body>
209 </subsection>
210 <subsection>
211 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
212 <body>
213
214 <p>
215 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
216 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
217 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
218 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
219 </p>
220
221 </body>
222 </subsection>
223 </section>
224 <section>
225 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
226 <body>
227
228 <p>
229 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
230 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
231 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
232 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
233 </p>
234
235 <ul>
236 <li>
237 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
238 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
239 to Stage2</uri>)
240 </li>
241 <li>
242 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
243 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
244 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
245 </li>
246 <li>
247 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
248 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
249 Kernel</uri>
250 </li>
251 </ul>
252
253 </body>
254 </section>
255 <section>
256 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
257 <subsection>
258 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
259 <body>
260
261 <p>
262 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
263 </p>
264
265 <p>
266 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
267 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
268 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
269 </p>
270
271 <p>
272 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
273 Collection and several other key system programs.
274 </p>
275
276 <p>
277 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
278 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
279 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </subsection>
284 <subsection>
285 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
286 <body>
287
288 <p>
289 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
290 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
291 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
292 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
293 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
294 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
295 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
296 </p>
297
298 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
299 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
300 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
301 </pre>
302
303 </body>
304 </subsection>
305 <subsection id="bootstrap">
306 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
307 <body>
308
309 <p>
310 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
311 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
312 takes quite some time to finish.
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
316 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
317 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
318 </pre>
319
320 <p>
321 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
322 to Stage3</uri>.
323 </p>
324
325 </body>
326 </subsection>
327 </section>
328 <section>
329 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
330 <subsection>
331 <title>Introduction</title>
332 <body>
333
334 <p>
335 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
336 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
337 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
338 </p>
339
340 <p>
341 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
342 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
343 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
344 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
345 </p>
346
347 </body>
348 </subsection>
349 <subsection>
350 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
351 <body>
352
353 <p>
354 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
355 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
356 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
357 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
361 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
362 </pre>
363
364 </body>
365 </subsection>
366 <subsection>
367 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
368 <body>
369
370 <p>
371 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
372 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
373 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
374 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
375 </p>
376
377 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
378 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
379 </pre>
380
381 </body>
382 </subsection>
383 <subsection>
384 <title>Building the System</title>
385 <body>
386
387 <p>
388 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
389 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
390 complete.
391 </p>
392
393 <pre caption = "Building the System">
394 # <i>emerge system</i>
395 </pre>
396
397 <p>
398 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
399 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
400 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
401 link="?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
402 </p>
403
404 <p>
405 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
406 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
407 </p>
408
409 </body>
410 </subsection>
411 </section>
412
413 </sections>

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