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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.54 2004/11/06 15:06:21 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 </p>
21
22 <warn>
23 An error within mirrorselect might make it output garbage after the
24 GENTOO_MIRRORS statement. Please open <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path>
25 and remove the garbage at the end of the GENTOO_MIRRORS statement if applicable.
26 </warn>
27
28 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
29 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 <p>
33 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
34 completely optional, the default values suffice.
35 </p>
36
37 </body>
38 </subsection>
39 <subsection>
40 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
41 <body>
42
43 <p>
44 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
45 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
46 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
47 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
48 network.
49 </p>
50
51 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
52 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
53 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
54 </pre>
55
56 </body>
57 </subsection>
58 <subsection>
59 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
60 <body>
61
62 <p>
63 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
64 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
65 chrooted environment.
66 </p>
67
68 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
69 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
70 </pre>
71
72 </body>
73 </subsection>
74 <subsection>
75 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
76 <body>
77
78 <p>
79 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
80 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
81 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
82 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
83 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
88 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
89 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
90 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
91 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
92 </p>
93
94 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
95 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
96 # <i>env-update</i>
97 * Caching service dependencies...
98 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
99 </pre>
100
101 <p>
102 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
103 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
104 has some sections left :-)
105 </p>
106
107 </body>
108 </subsection>
109 <subsection>
110 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
111 <body>
112
113 <p>
114 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
115 download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this
116 for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
117 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
118 </p>
119
120 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
121 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
126 command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
127 downloads and installs a Portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
128 protocol.
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
132 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
133 </pre>
134
135 <p>
136 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
137 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
138 on during the installation.
139 </p>
140
141 </body>
142 </subsection>
143 <subsection id="configure_USE">
144 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <p>
148 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
149 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
150 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
151 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
152 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
153 (X-server).
154 </p>
155
156 <p>
157 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
158 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
159 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
160 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
161 </p>
162
163 <p>
164 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
165 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
166 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
167 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
168 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
169 tweaked for GNOME.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
174 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
175 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
176 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
177 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
178 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
179 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
180 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
181 </p>
182
183 <p>
184 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
185 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
186 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
187 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
188 </p>
189
190 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
191 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
192 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
197 and CD Recording support:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
201 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
202 </pre>
203
204 <pre caption="USE setting">
205 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
206 </pre>
207
208 <p>
209 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
210 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
211 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
212 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
213 </p>
214
215 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
216 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
217 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
218 </pre>
219
220 <p>
221 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build">
225 en_US/ISO-8859-1
226 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
227 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
228 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
229 </pre>
230
231 </body>
232 </subsection>
233 <subsection>
234 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
235 <body>
236
237 <p>
238 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
239 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
240 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
241 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
242 </p>
243
244 </body>
245 </subsection>
246 </section>
247 <section>
248 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
249 <body>
250
251 <p>
252 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
253 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
254 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
255 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
256 </p>
257
258 <ul>
259 <li>
260 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
261 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
262 to Stage2</uri>)
263 </li>
264 <li>
265 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
266 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
267 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
268 </li>
269 <li>
270 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
271 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
272 Kernel</uri>
273 </li>
274 </ul>
275
276 </body>
277 </section>
278 <section>
279 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
280 <subsection>
281 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
282 <body>
283
284 <p>
285 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
286 </p>
287
288 <p>
289 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
290 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
291 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
292 </p>
293
294 <p>
295 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
296 Collection and several other key system programs.
297 </p>
298
299 <p>
300 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
301 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
302 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
303 </p>
304
305 </body>
306 </subsection>
307 <subsection>
308 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
309 <body>
310
311 <p>
312 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
313 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
314 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
315 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
316 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
317 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
318 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
322 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
323 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
324 </pre>
325
326 </body>
327 </subsection>
328 <subsection id="bootstrap">
329 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
330 <body>
331
332 <p>
333 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
334 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
335 takes quite some time to finish.
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
339 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
340 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
341 </pre>
342
343 <p>
344 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
345 to Stage3</uri>.
346 </p>
347
348 </body>
349 </subsection>
350 </section>
351 <section>
352 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
353 <subsection>
354 <title>Introduction</title>
355 <body>
356
357 <p>
358 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
359 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
360 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
365 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
366 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
367 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
368 </p>
369
370 </body>
371 </subsection>
372 <subsection>
373 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
374 <body>
375
376 <p>
377 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
378 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
379 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
380 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
381 </p>
382
383 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
384 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
385 </pre>
386
387 </body>
388 </subsection>
389 <subsection>
390 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
391 <body>
392
393 <p>
394 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
395 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
396 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
397 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
398 </p>
399
400 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
401 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
402 </pre>
403
404 </body>
405 </subsection>
406 <subsection>
407 <title>Building the System</title>
408 <body>
409
410 <p>
411 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
412 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
413 complete.
414 </p>
415
416 <pre caption = "Building the System">
417 # <i>emerge system</i>
418 </pre>
419
420 <p>
421 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
422 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
423 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
424 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
425 </p>
426
427 <p>
428 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
429 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
430 </p>
431
432 </body>
433 </subsection>
434 </section>
435
436 </sections>

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