/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.65 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Dec 3 17:59:10 2004 UTC (9 years, 10 months ago) by neysx
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.64: +6 -6 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#68682: unpack a portage tree before running either emerge --sync or emerge --metadata

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.64 2004/12/02 11:00:16 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.60</version>
12 <date>2004-11-28</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
22 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
23 and source code (of course this requires a working network connection):
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
27 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o |grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
28 </pre>
29
30 <p>
31 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
32 completely optional, the default values suffice.
33 </p>
34
35 </body>
36 </subsection>
37 <subsection>
38 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p>
42 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
43 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
44 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
45 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
46 network.
47 </p>
48
49 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
50 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
51 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
52 </pre>
53
54 </body>
55 </subsection>
56 <subsection>
57 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
58 <body>
59
60 <p>
61 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
62 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
63 chrooted environment.
64 </p>
65
66 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
67 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
68 </pre>
69
70 </body>
71 </subsection>
72 <subsection>
73 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
74 <body>
75
76 <p>
77 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
78 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
79 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
80 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
81 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
82 </p>
83
84 <p>
85 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
86 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
87 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
88 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
89 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
93 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
94 # <i>env-update</i>
95 * Caching service dependencies...
96 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
97 </pre>
98
99 <p>
100 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
101 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
102 has some sections left :-)
103 </p>
104
105 </body>
106 </subsection>
107 <subsection>
108 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
109 <body>
110
111 <p>
112 If you have a working Internet connection and you don't want to install our
113 prebuilt packages later on (also known as GRP packages), you should update your
114 Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this for you.
115 Other users should <e>only</e> run <c>emerge --metadata</c> to create the cache
116 database Portage usually creates after <c>emerge --sync</c>.
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
120 <comment>(For users with an Internet connection who do not intend on using GRP packages)</comment>
121 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
122
123 <comment>(For all other users)</comment>
124 # <i>emerge --metadata</i>
125 </pre>
126
127 <p>
128 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
129 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
130 on during the installation.
131 </p>
132
133 </body>
134 </subsection>
135 <subsection id="configure_USE">
136 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
137 <body>
138
139 <warn>
140 Do not make any modifications to the USE variable if you are performing a stage3
141 with GRP installation. You can alter the USE variable after having installed the
142 packages you want. Gremlins are known to attack your system if you ignore this
143 warning!
144 </warn>
145
146 <p>
147 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
148 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
149 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
150 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
151 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
152 (X-server).
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
157 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
158 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
159 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
160 </p>
161
162 <p>
163 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
164 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
165 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
166 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
167 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
168 tweaked for GNOME.
169 </p>
170
171 <p>
172 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
173 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
174 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
175 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
176 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
177 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
178 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
179 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
180 </p>
181
182 <p>
183 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
184 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
185 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
186 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
187 </p>
188
189 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
190 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
191 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
192 </pre>
193
194 <p>
195 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
196 and CD Recording support:
197 </p>
198
199 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
200 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
201 </pre>
202
203 <pre caption="USE setting">
204 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
205 </pre>
206
207 <p>
208 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
209 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
210 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
211 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
212 </p>
213
214 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
215 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
216 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
217 </pre>
218
219 <p>
220 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
221 </p>
222
223 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
224 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
225 </pre>
226
227 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
228 en_US/ISO-8859-1
229 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
230 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
231 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
232 </pre>
233
234 </body>
235 </subsection>
236 <subsection>
237 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
238 <body>
239
240 <p>
241 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
242 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
243 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
244 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
245 </p>
246
247 </body>
248 </subsection>
249 </section>
250 <section>
251 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
252 <body>
253
254 <p>
255 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
256 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
257 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
258 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
259 </p>
260
261 <ul>
262 <li>
263 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
264 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
265 to Stage2</uri>)
266 </li>
267 <li>
268 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
269 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
270 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
271 </li>
272 <li>
273 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
274 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
275 Kernel</uri>
276 </li>
277 </ul>
278
279 </body>
280 </section>
281 <section>
282 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
283 <subsection>
284 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
285 <body>
286
287 <p>
288 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
289 </p>
290
291 <p>
292 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
293 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
294 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
295 </p>
296
297 <p>
298 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
299 Collection and several other key system programs.
300 </p>
301
302 <p>
303 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
304 sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
305 with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
306 </p>
307
308 </body>
309 </subsection>
310 <subsection>
311 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
312 <body>
313
314 <p>
315 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
316 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
317 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
318 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
319 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
320 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
321 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
322 </p>
323
324 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
325 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
326 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
327 </pre>
328
329 </body>
330 </subsection>
331 <subsection id="bootstrap">
332 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
333 <body>
334
335 <p>
336 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
337 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
338 takes quite some time to finish.
339 </p>
340
341 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
342 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
343 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
344 </pre>
345
346 <p>
347 When you have set the <c>nptl</c> USE flag, rerunning <c>bootstrap.sh</c> might
348 fail with a message that <c>linux-headers</c> blocks <c>linux26-headers</c>.
349 When you receive this error, remove <c>linux-headers</c> and retry:
350 </p>
351
352 <pre caption="Removing linux-headers from your system">
353 # <i>emerge -C linux-headers</i>
354 # <i>emerge --oneshot linux26-headers</i>
355 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
356 </pre>
357
358 <p>
359 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
360 to Stage3</uri>.
361 </p>
362
363 </body>
364 </subsection>
365 </section>
366 <section>
367 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
368 <subsection>
369 <title>Introduction</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <p>
373 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
374 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
375 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
376 </p>
377
378 <p>
379 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
380 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
381 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
382 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
383 </p>
384
385 </body>
386 </subsection>
387 <subsection>
388 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
389 <body>
390
391 <p>
392 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
393 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
394 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
395 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
396 </p>
397
398 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
399 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
400 </pre>
401
402 </body>
403 </subsection>
404 <subsection>
405 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
406 <body>
407
408 <p>
409 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
410 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
411 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
412 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
413 </p>
414
415 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
416 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
417 </pre>
418
419 </body>
420 </subsection>
421 <subsection>
422 <title>Building the System</title>
423 <body>
424
425 <p>
426 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
427 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
428 complete.
429 </p>
430
431 <pre caption = "Building the System">
432 # <i>emerge system</i>
433 </pre>
434
435 <p>
436 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
437 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
438 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
439 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
440 </p>
441
442 <p>
443 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
444 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
445 </p>
446
447 </body>
448 </subsection>
449 </section>
450
451 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20