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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.67 2004/12/22 21:54:10 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.63</version>
12 <date>2004-12-26</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
22 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
23 and source code (of course this requires a working network connection):
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
27 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o |grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
28 </pre>
29
30 <p>
31 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
32 completely optional, the default values suffice.
33 </p>
34
35 </body>
36 </subsection>
37 <subsection>
38 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p>
42 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
43 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
44 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
45 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
46 network.
47 </p>
48
49 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
50 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
51 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
52 </pre>
53
54 </body>
55 </subsection>
56 <subsection>
57 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
58 <body>
59
60 <p>
61 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
62 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
63 chrooted environment.
64 </p>
65
66 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
67 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
68 </pre>
69
70 </body>
71 </subsection>
72 <subsection>
73 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
74 <body>
75
76 <p>
77 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
78 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
79 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
80 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
81 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
82 </p>
83
84 <p>
85 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
86 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
87 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
88 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
89 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
93 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
94 # <i>env-update</i>
95 * Caching service dependencies...
96 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
97 </pre>
98
99 <p>
100 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
101 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
102 has some sections left :-)
103 </p>
104
105 </body>
106 </subsection>
107 <subsection>
108 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
109 <body>
110
111 <p>
112 If you have a working Internet connection and you don't want to install our
113 prebuilt packages later on (also known as GRP packages), you should update your
114 Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this for you.
115 Other users should <e>only</e> run <c>emerge --metadata</c> to create the cache
116 database Portage usually creates after <c>emerge --sync</c>.
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
120 <comment>(For users with an Internet connection who do not intend on using GRP packages)</comment>
121 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
122
123 <comment>(For all other users)</comment>
124 # <i>emerge --metadata</i>
125 </pre>
126
127 <p>
128 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
129 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
130 on during the installation.
131 </p>
132
133 </body>
134 </subsection>
135 <subsection id="configure_USE">
136 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
137 <body>
138
139 <warn>
140 Do not make any modifications to the USE variable if you are performing a stage3
141 with GRP installation. You can alter the USE variable after having installed the
142 packages you want. Gremlins are known to attack your system if you ignore this
143 warning!
144 </warn>
145
146 <p>
147 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
148 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
149 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
150 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
151 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
152 (X-server).
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
157 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
158 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
159 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
160 </p>
161
162 <p>
163 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
164 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
165 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
166 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
167 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
168 tweaked for GNOME.
169 </p>
170
171 <p>
172 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
173 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
174 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
175 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
176 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
177 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
178 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
179 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
180 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
181 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
182 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
183 </p>
184
185 <p>
186 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
187 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
188 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
189 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
193 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
194 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
195 </pre>
196
197 <p>
198 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
199 and CD Recording support:
200 </p>
201
202 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
203 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
204 </pre>
205
206 <pre caption="USE setting">
207 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
208 </pre>
209
210 <p>
211 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
212 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
213 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
214 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
215 if you know what locales to choose.
216 </p>
217
218 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
219 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
220 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
221 </pre>
222
223 <p>
224 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
228 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
229 </pre>
230
231 <p>
232 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
233 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
234 </p>
235
236 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
237 en_US/ISO-8859-1
238 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
239 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
240 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
241 </pre>
242
243 </body>
244 </subsection>
245 <subsection>
246 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
247 <body>
248
249 <p>
250 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
251 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
252 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
253 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
254 </p>
255
256 </body>
257 </subsection>
258 </section>
259 <section>
260 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
261 <body>
262
263 <p>
264 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
265 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
266 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
267 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
268 </p>
269
270 <ul>
271 <li>
272 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
273 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
274 to Stage2</uri>)
275 </li>
276 <li>
277 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
278 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
279 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
280 </li>
281 <li>
282 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
283 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
284 Kernel</uri>
285 </li>
286 </ul>
287
288 </body>
289 </section>
290 <section>
291 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
292 <subsection>
293 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
294 <body>
295
296 <p>
297 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
298 </p>
299
300 <p>
301 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
302 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
303 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
308 Collection and several other key system programs.
309 </p>
310
311 <p>
312 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
313 sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
314 with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
315 </p>
316
317 </body>
318 </subsection>
319 <subsection>
320 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
321 <body>
322
323 <p>
324 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
325 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
326 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
327 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
328 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
329 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
330 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
331 </p>
332
333 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
334 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
335 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
336 </pre>
337
338 </body>
339 </subsection>
340 <subsection id="bootstrap">
341 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
342 <body>
343
344 <p>
345 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
346 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
347 takes quite some time to finish.
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
351 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
352 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
353 </pre>
354
355 <p>
356 When you have set the <c>nptl</c> USE flag, rerunning <c>bootstrap.sh</c> might
357 fail with a message that <c>linux-headers</c> blocks <c>linux26-headers</c>.
358 When you receive this error, remove <c>linux-headers</c> and retry:
359 </p>
360
361 <pre caption="Removing linux-headers from your system">
362 # <i>emerge -C linux-headers</i>
363 # <i>emerge --oneshot --nodeps linux26-headers</i>
364 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
365 </pre>
366
367 <p>
368 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
369 to Stage3</uri>.
370 </p>
371
372 </body>
373 </subsection>
374 </section>
375 <section>
376 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
377 <subsection>
378 <title>Introduction</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <p>
382 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
383 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
384 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
385 </p>
386
387 <p>
388 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
389 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
390 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
391 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
392 </p>
393
394 </body>
395 </subsection>
396 <subsection>
397 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
402 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
403 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
404 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
405 </p>
406
407 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
408 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
409 </pre>
410
411 </body>
412 </subsection>
413 <subsection>
414 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
415 <body>
416
417 <p>
418 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
419 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
420 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
421 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
425 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
426 </pre>
427
428 </body>
429 </subsection>
430 <subsection>
431 <title>Building the System</title>
432 <body>
433
434 <p>
435 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
436 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
437 complete.
438 </p>
439
440 <pre caption = "Building the System">
441 # <i>emerge system</i>
442 </pre>
443
444 <p>
445 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
446 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
447 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
448 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
449 </p>
450
451 <p>
452 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
453 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
454 </p>
455
456 </body>
457 </subsection>
458 </section>
459
460 </sections>

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