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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.69 2005/01/04 18:11:21 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.65</version>
12 <date>2005-02-25</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <p>
35 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
36 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
37 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
38 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
39 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
40 </p>
41
42 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
43 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
44 </pre>
45
46 <p>
47 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
48 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
49 </p>
50
51 </body>
52 </subsection>
53 <subsection>
54 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
55 <body>
56
57 <p>
58 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
59 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
60 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
61 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
62 network.
63 </p>
64
65 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
66 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
67 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
68 </pre>
69
70 </body>
71 </subsection>
72 <subsection>
73 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
74 <body>
75
76 <p>
77 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
78 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
79 chrooted environment.
80 </p>
81
82 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
83 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
84 </pre>
85
86 </body>
87 </subsection>
88 <subsection>
89 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
90 <body>
91
92 <p>
93 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
94 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
95 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
96 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
97 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
98 </p>
99
100 <p>
101 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
102 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
103 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
104 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
105 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
106 </p>
107
108 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
109 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
110 # <i>env-update</i>
111 * Caching service dependencies...
112 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113 </pre>
114
115 <p>
116 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
117 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
118 has some sections left :-)
119 </p>
120
121 </body>
122 </subsection>
123 <subsection>
124 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
125 <body>
126
127 <p>
128 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
129 --sync</c> does this for you.
130 </p>
131
132 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
133 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
134 </pre>
135
136 <p>
137 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
138 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
139 on during the installation.
140 </p>
141
142 </body>
143 </subsection>
144 <subsection id="configure_USE">
145 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
146 <body>
147
148 <p>
149 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
150 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
151 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
152 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
153 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
154 (X-server).
155 </p>
156
157 <p>
158 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
159 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
160 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
161 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
162 </p>
163
164 <p>
165 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
166 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
167 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
168 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
169 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
170 tweaked for GNOME.
171 </p>
172
173 <p>
174 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
175 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
176 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
177 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
178 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
179 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
180 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
181 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
182 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
183 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
184 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
185 </p>
186
187 <p>
188 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
189 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
190 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
191 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
195 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
196 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
197 </pre>
198
199 <p>
200 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
201 and CD Recording support:
202 </p>
203
204 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
205 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
206 </pre>
207
208 <pre caption="USE setting">
209 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
210 </pre>
211
212 </body>
213 </subsection>
214 <subsection>
215 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
216 <body>
217
218 <p>
219 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
220 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
221 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
222 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
223 if you know what locales to choose.
224 </p>
225
226 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
227 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
228 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
229 </pre>
230
231 <p>
232 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
233 </p>
234
235 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
236 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
237 </pre>
238
239 <p>
240 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
241 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
242 </p>
243
244 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
245 en_US/ISO-8859-1
246 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
247 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
248 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
249 </pre>
250
251 </body>
252 </subsection>
253 </section>
254 <section>
255 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
256 <body>
257
258 <p>
259 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
260 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
261 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
262 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
263 </p>
264
265 <ul>
266 <li>
267 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
268 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
269 to Stage2</uri>)
270 </li>
271 <li>
272 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
273 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
274 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
275 </li>
276 <li>
277 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
278 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
279 Kernel</uri>
280 </li>
281 </ul>
282
283 </body>
284 </section>
285 <section>
286 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
287 <subsection>
288 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
289 <body>
290
291 <p>
292 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
293 </p>
294
295 <p>
296 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
297 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
298 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
299 </p>
300
301 <p>
302 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
303 Collection and several other key system programs.
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
308 sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
309 with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
310 </p>
311
312 </body>
313 </subsection>
314 <subsection>
315 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
316 <body>
317
318 <p>
319 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
320 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
321 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
322 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
323 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
324 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
325 </p>
326
327 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
328 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
329 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
330 </pre>
331
332 </body>
333 </subsection>
334 <subsection id="bootstrap">
335 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
336 <body>
337
338 <p>
339 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
340 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
341 takes quite some time to finish.
342 </p>
343
344 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
345 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
346 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
347 </pre>
348
349 <p>
350 When you have set the <c>nptl</c> USE flag, rerunning <c>bootstrap.sh</c> might
351 fail with a message that <c>linux-headers</c> blocks <c>linux26-headers</c>.
352 When you receive this error, remove <c>linux-headers</c> and retry:
353 </p>
354
355 <pre caption="Removing linux-headers from your system">
356 # <i>emerge -C linux-headers</i>
357 # <i>emerge --oneshot --nodeps linux26-headers</i>
358 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
359 </pre>
360
361 <p>
362 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
363 to Stage3</uri>.
364 </p>
365
366 </body>
367 </subsection>
368 </section>
369 <section>
370 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
371 <subsection>
372 <title>Introduction</title>
373 <body>
374
375 <p>
376 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
377 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
378 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
379 </p>
380
381 <p>
382 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
383 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
384 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
385 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
386 </p>
387
388 </body>
389 </subsection>
390 <subsection>
391 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
392 <body>
393
394 <p>
395 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
396 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
397 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
398 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
399 </p>
400
401 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
402 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
403 </pre>
404
405 </body>
406 </subsection>
407 <subsection>
408 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
409 <body>
410
411 <p>
412 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
413 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
414 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
415 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
416 </p>
417
418 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
419 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
420 </pre>
421
422 </body>
423 </subsection>
424 <subsection>
425 <title>Building the System</title>
426 <body>
427
428 <p>
429 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
430 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
431 complete.
432 </p>
433
434 <pre caption = "Building the System">
435 # <i>emerge system</i>
436 </pre>
437
438 <p>
439 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
440 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
441 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
442 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
443 </p>
444
445 <p>
446 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
447 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
448 </p>
449
450 </body>
451 </subsection>
452 </section>
453
454 </sections>

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