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#78631 - Do not select IPv6 mirrors with mirrorselect

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.70 2005/02/25 09:01:15 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.66</version>
12 <date>2005-02-25</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83 chrooted environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 </pre>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
101 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114 # <i>env-update</i>
115 * Caching service dependencies...
116 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 has some sections left :-)
123 </p>
124
125 </body>
126 </subsection>
127 <subsection>
128 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 <body>
130
131 <p>
132 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133 --sync</c> does this for you.
134 </p>
135
136 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 </pre>
139
140 <p>
141 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
142 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
143 on during the installation.
144 </p>
145
146 </body>
147 </subsection>
148 <subsection id="configure_USE">
149 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
150 <body>
151
152 <p>
153 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
154 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
155 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
156 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
157 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
158 (X-server).
159 </p>
160
161 <p>
162 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
163 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
164 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
165 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
166 </p>
167
168 <p>
169 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
170 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
171 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
172 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
173 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
174 tweaked for GNOME.
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
179 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
180 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
181 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
182 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
183 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
184 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
185 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
186 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
187 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
188 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
189 </p>
190
191 <p>
192 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
193 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
194 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
195 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
196 </p>
197
198 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
199 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
200 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
205 and CD Recording support:
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
209 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
210 </pre>
211
212 <pre caption="USE setting">
213 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
214 </pre>
215
216 </body>
217 </subsection>
218 <subsection>
219 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
220 <body>
221
222 <p>
223 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
224 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
225 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
226 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
227 if you know what locales to choose.
228 </p>
229
230 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
231 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
232 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
233 </pre>
234
235 <p>
236 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
240 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
241 </pre>
242
243 <p>
244 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
245 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
246 </p>
247
248 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
249 en_US/ISO-8859-1
250 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
251 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
252 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
253 </pre>
254
255 </body>
256 </subsection>
257 </section>
258 <section>
259 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
260 <body>
261
262 <p>
263 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
264 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
265 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
266 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
267 </p>
268
269 <ul>
270 <li>
271 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
272 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
273 to Stage2</uri>)
274 </li>
275 <li>
276 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
277 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
278 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
279 </li>
280 <li>
281 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
282 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
283 Kernel</uri>
284 </li>
285 </ul>
286
287 </body>
288 </section>
289 <section>
290 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
291 <subsection>
292 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
293 <body>
294
295 <p>
296 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
297 </p>
298
299 <p>
300 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
301 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
302 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
303 </p>
304
305 <p>
306 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
307 Collection and several other key system programs.
308 </p>
309
310 <p>
311 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
312 sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
313 with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
314 </p>
315
316 </body>
317 </subsection>
318 <subsection>
319 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
320 <body>
321
322 <p>
323 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
324 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
325 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
326 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
327 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
328 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
332 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
333 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
334 </pre>
335
336 </body>
337 </subsection>
338 <subsection id="bootstrap">
339 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
340 <body>
341
342 <p>
343 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
344 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
345 takes quite some time to finish.
346 </p>
347
348 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
349 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
350 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
351 </pre>
352
353 <p>
354 When you have set the <c>nptl</c> USE flag, rerunning <c>bootstrap.sh</c> might
355 fail with a message that <c>linux-headers</c> blocks <c>linux26-headers</c>.
356 When you receive this error, remove <c>linux-headers</c> and retry:
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="Removing linux-headers from your system">
360 # <i>emerge -C linux-headers</i>
361 # <i>emerge --oneshot --nodeps linux26-headers</i>
362 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
363 </pre>
364
365 <p>
366 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
367 to Stage3</uri>.
368 </p>
369
370 </body>
371 </subsection>
372 </section>
373 <section>
374 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
375 <subsection>
376 <title>Introduction</title>
377 <body>
378
379 <p>
380 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
381 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
382 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
383 </p>
384
385 <p>
386 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
387 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
388 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
389 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
390 </p>
391
392 </body>
393 </subsection>
394 <subsection>
395 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
396 <body>
397
398 <p>
399 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
400 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
401 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
402 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
406 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
407 </pre>
408
409 </body>
410 </subsection>
411 <subsection>
412 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
413 <body>
414
415 <p>
416 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
417 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
418 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
419 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
420 </p>
421
422 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
423 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
424 </pre>
425
426 </body>
427 </subsection>
428 <subsection>
429 <title>Building the System</title>
430 <body>
431
432 <p>
433 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
434 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
435 complete.
436 </p>
437
438 <pre caption = "Building the System">
439 # <i>emerge system</i>
440 </pre>
441
442 <p>
443 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
444 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
445 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
446 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
447 </p>
448
449 <p>
450 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
451 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
452 </p>
453
454 </body>
455 </subsection>
456 </section>
457
458 </sections>

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