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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.76 2005/04/09 10:05:13 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.4</version>
12 <date>2005-05-07</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83 chrooted environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 </pre>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114 # <i>env-update</i>
115 * Caching service dependencies...
116 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 has some sections left :-)
123 </p>
124
125 </body>
126 </subsection>
127 <subsection>
128 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 <body>
130
131 <p>
132 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133 --sync</c> does this for you.
134 </p>
135
136 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 </pre>
139
140 <p>
141 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
142 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
143 you.
144 </p>
145
146 <p>
147 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
148 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
149 on during the installation.
150 </p>
151
152 </body>
153 </subsection>
154 <subsection>
155 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
156 <body>
157
158 <p>
159 First, a small definition is in place.
160 </p>
161
162 <p>
163 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
164 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
165 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
166 Gentoo developers.
167 </p>
168
169 <p>
170 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, recently,
171 x86, hppa and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel
172 and one for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the
173 integration of the 2.6 kernels.
174 </p>
175
176 <p>
177 You can see what profile you are currently using by issuing the following
178 command:
179 </p>
180
181 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
182 # <i>ls -l /etc/make.profile</i>
183 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 48 Mar 7 11:55 /etc/make.profile ->
184 ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, you will see an
189 additional profile in the one listed by the <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
193 # <i>ls -F /etc/make.profile/</i>
194 2.4/ packages parent virtuals
195 </pre>
196
197 <p>
198 As you can see, in the above example there is a 2.4 subdirectory. This means
199 that the current profile uses the 2.6 kernel; if you want a 2.4-based system,
200 you need to relink your <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
201 </p>
202
203 <pre caption="Relinking the profile">
204 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
205 </pre>
206
207 </body>
208 </subsection>
209 <subsection id="configure_USE">
210 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
211 <body>
212
213 <p>
214 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
215 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
216 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
217 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
218 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
219 (X-server).
220 </p>
221
222 <p>
223 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
224 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
225 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
226 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
227 </p>
228
229 <p>
230 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
231 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
232 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
233 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
234 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
235 tweaked for GNOME.
236 </p>
237
238 <p>
239 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
240 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
241 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
242 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
243 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
244 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
245 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
246 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
247 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
248 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
249 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
250 </p>
251
252 <p>
253 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
254 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
255 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
256 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
257 </p>
258
259 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
260 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
261 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
262 </pre>
263
264 <p>
265 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
266 and CD Recording support:
267 </p>
268
269 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
270 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
271 </pre>
272
273 <pre caption="USE setting">
274 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
275 </pre>
276
277 </body>
278 </subsection>
279 <subsection>
280 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
281 <body>
282
283 <p>
284 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
285 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
286 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
287 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
288 if you know what locales to choose. This will not work for the bootstrapping,
289 but when you recompile glibc afterwards it will.
290 </p>
291
292 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
293 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
294 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
295 </pre>
296
297 <p>
298 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
302 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
303 </pre>
304
305 <p>
306 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
307 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
311 en_US/ISO-8859-1
312 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
313 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
314 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
315 </pre>
316
317 </body>
318 </subsection>
319 </section>
320 <section>
321 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
322 <body>
323
324 <p>
325 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
326 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
327 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
328 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
329 </p>
330
331 <ul>
332 <li>
333 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
334 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
335 to Stage2</uri>)
336 </li>
337 <li>
338 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
339 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
340 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
341 </li>
342 <li>
343 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
344 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
345 Kernel</uri>
346 </li>
347 </ul>
348
349 </body>
350 </section>
351 <section>
352 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
353 <subsection>
354 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
355 <body>
356
357 <p>
358 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
359 </p>
360
361 <p>
362 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
363 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
364 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
365 </p>
366
367 <p>
368 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
369 Collection and several other key system programs.
370 </p>
371
372 <p>
373 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
374 sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
375 with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
376 </p>
377
378 </body>
379 </subsection>
380 <subsection>
381 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
386 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
387 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
388 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
389 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
390 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
391 </p>
392
393 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
394 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
395 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
396 </pre>
397
398 </body>
399 </subsection>
400 <subsection id="bootstrap">
401 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
402 <body>
403
404 <p>
405 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
406 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
407 takes quite some time to finish.
408 </p>
409
410 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
411 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
412 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
413 </pre>
414
415 <p>
416 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
417 to Stage3</uri>.
418 </p>
419
420 </body>
421 </subsection>
422 </section>
423 <section>
424 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
425 <subsection>
426 <title>Introduction</title>
427 <body>
428
429 <p>
430 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
431 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
432 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
433 </p>
434
435 <p>
436 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
437 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
438 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
439 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
440 </p>
441
442 </body>
443 </subsection>
444 <subsection>
445 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
446 <body>
447
448 <p>
449 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
450 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
451 built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
452 <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
453 </p>
454
455 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
456 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
457 </pre>
458
459 <p>
460 Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
461 <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient: it will rebuild the
462 applications that are affected by a change in USE flags (compared to the USE
463 flag we used while building the stage2). If you didn't touch
464 the USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
465 </p>
466
467 </body>
468 </subsection>
469 <subsection>
470 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
471 <body>
472
473 <p>
474 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
475 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
476 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
477 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
478 </p>
479
480 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
481 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
482 </pre>
483
484 </body>
485 </subsection>
486 <subsection>
487 <title>Building the System</title>
488 <body>
489
490 <p>
491 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
492 go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
493 complete.
494 </p>
495
496 <pre caption = "Building the System">
497 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
498 </pre>
499
500 <p>
501 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
502 <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
503 </p>
504
505 <p>
506 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
507 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
508 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
509 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
510 </p>
511
512 <p>
513 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
514 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
515 </p>
516
517 </body>
518 </subsection>
519 </section>
520
521 </sections>

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