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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.77 2005/05/07 23:37:21 vapier Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.5</version>
12 <date>2005-05-17</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83 chrooted environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 </pre>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114 # <i>env-update</i>
115 * Caching service dependencies...
116 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 has some sections left :-)
123 </p>
124
125 </body>
126 </subsection>
127 <subsection>
128 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 <body>
130
131 <p>
132 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133 --sync</c> does this for you.
134 </p>
135
136 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
139 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
140 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
141 </pre>
142
143 <p>
144 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
145 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
146 you.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
151 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
152 on during the installation.
153 </p>
154
155 </body>
156 </subsection>
157 <subsection>
158 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
159 <body>
160
161 <p>
162 First, a small definition is in place.
163 </p>
164
165 <p>
166 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
167 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
168 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
169 Gentoo developers.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, recently,
174 x86, hppa and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel
175 and one for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the
176 integration of the 2.6 kernels.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 You can see what profile you are currently using by issuing the following
181 command:
182 </p>
183
184 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
185 # <i>ls -l /etc/make.profile</i>
186 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 48 Mar 7 11:55 /etc/make.profile ->
187 ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0
188 </pre>
189
190 <p>
191 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, you will see an
192 additional profile in the one listed by the <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
193 </p>
194
195 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
196 # <i>ls -F /etc/make.profile/</i>
197 2.4/ packages parent virtuals
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 As you can see, in the above example there is a 2.4 subdirectory. This means
202 that the current profile uses the 2.6 kernel; if you want a 2.4-based system,
203 you need to relink your <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
204 </p>
205
206 <pre caption="Relinking the profile">
207 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
208 </pre>
209
210 </body>
211 </subsection>
212 <subsection id="configure_USE">
213 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
214 <body>
215
216 <p>
217 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
218 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
219 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
220 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
221 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
222 (X-server).
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
227 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
228 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
229 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
230 </p>
231
232 <p>
233 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
234 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
235 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
236 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
237 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
238 tweaked for GNOME.
239 </p>
240
241 <p>
242 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
243 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
244 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
245 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
246 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
247 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
248 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
249 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
250 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
251 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
252 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
257 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
258 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
259 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
260 </p>
261
262 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
263 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
264 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
265 </pre>
266
267 <p>
268 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
269 and CD Recording support:
270 </p>
271
272 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
273 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
274 </pre>
275
276 <pre caption="USE setting">
277 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
278 </pre>
279
280 </body>
281 </subsection>
282 <subsection>
283 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
284 <body>
285
286 <p>
287 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
288 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
289 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
290 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
291 if you know what locales to choose. This will not work for the bootstrapping,
292 but when you recompile glibc afterwards it will.
293 </p>
294
295 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
296 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
297 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
298 </pre>
299
300 <p>
301 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
302 </p>
303
304 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
305 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
306 </pre>
307
308 <p>
309 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
310 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
314 en_US/ISO-8859-1
315 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
316 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
317 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
318 </pre>
319
320 </body>
321 </subsection>
322 </section>
323 <section>
324 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
325 <body>
326
327 <p>
328 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
329 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
330 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
331 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
332 </p>
333
334 <ul>
335 <li>
336 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
337 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
338 to Stage2</uri>)
339 </li>
340 <li>
341 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
342 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
343 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
344 </li>
345 <li>
346 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
347 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
348 Kernel</uri>
349 </li>
350 </ul>
351
352 </body>
353 </section>
354 <section>
355 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
356 <subsection>
357 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
358 <body>
359
360 <p>
361 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
362 </p>
363
364 <p>
365 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
366 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
367 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
368 </p>
369
370 <p>
371 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
372 Collection and several other key system programs.
373 </p>
374
375 <p>
376 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
377 sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
378 with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
379 </p>
380
381 </body>
382 </subsection>
383 <subsection>
384 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
385 <body>
386
387 <p>
388 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
389 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
390 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
391 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
392 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
393 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
394 </p>
395
396 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
397 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
398 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
399 </pre>
400
401 </body>
402 </subsection>
403 <subsection id="bootstrap">
404 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
405 <body>
406
407 <p>
408 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
409 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
410 takes quite some time to finish.
411 </p>
412
413 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
414 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
415 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
416 </pre>
417
418 <p>
419 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
420 to Stage3</uri>.
421 </p>
422
423 </body>
424 </subsection>
425 </section>
426 <section>
427 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
428 <subsection>
429 <title>Introduction</title>
430 <body>
431
432 <p>
433 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
434 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
435 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
436 </p>
437
438 <p>
439 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
440 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
441 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
442 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
443 </p>
444
445 </body>
446 </subsection>
447 <subsection>
448 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
449 <body>
450
451 <p>
452 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
453 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
454 built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
455 <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
456 </p>
457
458 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
459 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
460 </pre>
461
462 <p>
463 Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
464 <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient: it will rebuild the
465 applications that are affected by a change in USE flags (compared to the USE
466 flag we used while building the stage2). If you didn't touch
467 the USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
468 </p>
469
470 </body>
471 </subsection>
472 <subsection>
473 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
474 <body>
475
476 <p>
477 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
478 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
479 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
480 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
481 </p>
482
483 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
484 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
485 </pre>
486
487 </body>
488 </subsection>
489 <subsection>
490 <title>Building the System</title>
491 <body>
492
493 <p>
494 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
495 go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
496 complete.
497 </p>
498
499 <pre caption = "Building the System">
500 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
501 </pre>
502
503 <p>
504 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
505 <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
506 </p>
507
508 <p>
509 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
510 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
511 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
512 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
513 </p>
514
515 <p>
516 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
517 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
518 </p>
519
520 </body>
521 </subsection>
522 </section>
523
524 </sections>

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