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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.78 2005/05/17 16:42:30 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.6</version>
12 <date>2005-06-08</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83 chrooted environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 </pre>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114 # <i>env-update</i>
115 * Caching service dependencies...
116 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 has some sections left :-)
123 </p>
124
125 </body>
126 </subsection>
127 <subsection>
128 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 <body>
130
131 <p>
132 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133 --sync</c> does this for you.
134 </p>
135
136 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
139 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
140 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
141 </pre>
142
143 <p>
144 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
145 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
146 you.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
151 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
152 on during the installation.
153 </p>
154
155 </body>
156 </subsection>
157 <subsection>
158 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
159 <body>
160
161 <p>
162 First, a small definition is in place.
163 </p>
164
165 <p>
166 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
167 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
168 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
169 Gentoo developers.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
174 and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
175 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
176 of the 2.6 kernels.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
184 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
185 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/
186 </pre>
187
188 <p>
189 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, you will see a
190 <path>2.4</path> subdirectory that identifies an additional profile below the
191 one that the <path>make.profile</path> symlink points to:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
195 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
196 total 8
197 drwxr-xr-x 2 120 Jan 21 23:08 2.4/
198 -rw-r--r-- 1 679 Mar 29 00:35 packages
199 -rw-r--r-- 1 343 Dec 3 2004 parent
200 </pre>
201
202 <p>
203 As you can see in the above example, the current profile contains a
204 <path>2.4</path> subdirectory. This means that the current profile uses the
205 2.6 kernel and that you can change your profile to a 2.4-based system. For
206 that, you need to link the <path>make.profile</path> symlink to the
207 <path>2.4</path> subdirectory:
208 </p>
209
210 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
211 <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
212 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
213 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
214 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
215 total 12
216 -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
217 -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
218 -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
219 </pre>
220
221 </body>
222 </subsection>
223 <subsection id="configure_USE">
224 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
225 <body>
226
227 <p>
228 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
229 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
230 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
231 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
232 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
233 (X-server).
234 </p>
235
236 <p>
237 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
238 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
239 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
240 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
241 </p>
242
243 <p>
244 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
245 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
246 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
247 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
248 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
249 tweaked for GNOME.
250 </p>
251
252 <p>
253 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
254 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
255 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
256 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
257 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
258 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
259 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
260 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
261 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
262 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
263 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
264 </p>
265
266 <p>
267 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
268 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
269 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
270 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
271 </p>
272
273 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
274 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
275 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
276 </pre>
277
278 <p>
279 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
280 and CD Recording support:
281 </p>
282
283 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
284 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
285 </pre>
286
287 <pre caption="USE setting">
288 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
289 </pre>
290
291 </body>
292 </subsection>
293 <subsection>
294 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
295 <body>
296
297 <p>
298 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
299 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
300 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
301 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
302 if you know what locales to choose. This will not work for the bootstrapping,
303 but when you recompile glibc afterwards it will.
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
307 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
308 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
309 </pre>
310
311 <p>
312 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
316 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
317 </pre>
318
319 <p>
320 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
321 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
322 </p>
323
324 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
325 en_US/ISO-8859-1
326 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
327 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
328 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
329 </pre>
330
331 </body>
332 </subsection>
333 </section>
334 <section>
335 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
336 <body>
337
338 <p>
339 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
340 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
341 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
342 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
343 </p>
344
345 <ul>
346 <li>
347 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
348 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
349 to Stage2</uri>)
350 </li>
351 <li>
352 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
353 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
354 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
355 </li>
356 <li>
357 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
358 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
359 Kernel</uri>
360 </li>
361 </ul>
362
363 </body>
364 </section>
365 <section>
366 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
367 <subsection>
368 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
369 <body>
370
371 <p>
372 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
373 </p>
374
375 <p>
376 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
377 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
378 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
379 </p>
380
381 <p>
382 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
383 Collection and several other key system programs.
384 </p>
385
386 <p>
387 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
388 sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
389 with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
390 </p>
391
392 </body>
393 </subsection>
394 <subsection>
395 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
396 <body>
397
398 <p>
399 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
400 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
401 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
402 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
403 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
404 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
405 </p>
406
407 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
408 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
409 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
410 </pre>
411
412 </body>
413 </subsection>
414 <subsection id="bootstrap">
415 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
416 <body>
417
418 <p>
419 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
420 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
421 takes quite some time to finish.
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
425 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
426 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
427 </pre>
428
429 <p>
430 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
431 to Stage3</uri>.
432 </p>
433
434 </body>
435 </subsection>
436 </section>
437 <section>
438 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
439 <subsection>
440 <title>Introduction</title>
441 <body>
442
443 <p>
444 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
445 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
446 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
447 </p>
448
449 <p>
450 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
451 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
452 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
453 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
454 </p>
455
456 </body>
457 </subsection>
458 <subsection>
459 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
460 <body>
461
462 <p>
463 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
464 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
465 built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
466 <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
470 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
471 </pre>
472
473 <p>
474 Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
475 <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient: it will rebuild the
476 applications that are affected by a change in USE flags (compared to the USE
477 flag we used while building the stage2). If you didn't touch
478 the USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
479 </p>
480
481 </body>
482 </subsection>
483 <subsection>
484 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
485 <body>
486
487 <p>
488 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
489 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
490 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
491 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
492 </p>
493
494 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
495 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
496 </pre>
497
498 </body>
499 </subsection>
500 <subsection>
501 <title>Building the System</title>
502 <body>
503
504 <p>
505 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
506 go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
507 complete.
508 </p>
509
510 <pre caption = "Building the System">
511 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
512 </pre>
513
514 <p>
515 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
516 <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
517 </p>
518
519 <p>
520 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
521 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
522 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
523 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
524 </p>
525
526 <p>
527 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
528 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
529 </p>
530
531 </body>
532 </subsection>
533 </section>
534
535 </sections>

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