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#94952 "2.4 means 2.6" confuses users. Take 2. Thanks to dsd

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.79 2005/06/08 10:19:57 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.7</version>
12 <date>2005-06-09</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83 chrooted environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 </pre>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114 # <i>env-update</i>
115 * Caching service dependencies...
116 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 has some sections left :-)
123 </p>
124
125 </body>
126 </subsection>
127 <subsection>
128 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 <body>
130
131 <p>
132 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133 --sync</c> does this for you.
134 </p>
135
136 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
139 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
140 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
141 </pre>
142
143 <p>
144 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
145 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
146 you.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
151 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
152 on during the installation.
153 </p>
154
155 </body>
156 </subsection>
157 <subsection>
158 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
159 <body>
160
161 <p>
162 First, a small definition is in place.
163 </p>
164
165 <p>
166 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
167 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
168 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
169 Gentoo developers.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
174 and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
175 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
176 of the 2.6 kernels.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
184 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
185 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/
186 </pre>
187
188 <p>
189 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
190 profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
191 default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
192 </p>
193
194 <p>
195 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
196 If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
197 additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
201 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4</i>
202 /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4
203 </pre>
204
205 <p>
206 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
207 complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
208 the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
209 </p>
210
211 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
212 <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
213 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
214 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
215 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
216 total 12
217 -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
218 -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
219 -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
220 </pre>
221
222 </body>
223 </subsection>
224 <subsection id="configure_USE">
225 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
226 <body>
227
228 <p>
229 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
230 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
231 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
232 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
233 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
234 (X-server).
235 </p>
236
237 <p>
238 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
239 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
240 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
241 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
242 </p>
243
244 <p>
245 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
246 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
247 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
248 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
249 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
250 tweaked for GNOME.
251 </p>
252
253 <p>
254 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
255 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
256 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
257 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
258 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
259 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
260 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
261 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
262 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
263 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
264 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
265 </p>
266
267 <p>
268 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
269 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
270 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
271 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
272 </p>
273
274 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
275 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
276 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
277 </pre>
278
279 <p>
280 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
281 and CD Recording support:
282 </p>
283
284 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
285 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
286 </pre>
287
288 <pre caption="USE setting">
289 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
290 </pre>
291
292 </body>
293 </subsection>
294 <subsection>
295 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
296 <body>
297
298 <p>
299 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
300 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
301 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
302 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
303 if you know what locales to choose. This will not work for the bootstrapping,
304 but when you recompile glibc afterwards it will.
305 </p>
306
307 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
308 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
309 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
310 </pre>
311
312 <p>
313 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
314 </p>
315
316 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
317 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
318 </pre>
319
320 <p>
321 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
322 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
323 </p>
324
325 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
326 en_US/ISO-8859-1
327 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
328 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
329 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
330 </pre>
331
332 </body>
333 </subsection>
334 </section>
335 <section>
336 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
337 <body>
338
339 <p>
340 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
341 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
342 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
343 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
344 </p>
345
346 <ul>
347 <li>
348 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
349 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
350 to Stage2</uri>)
351 </li>
352 <li>
353 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
354 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
355 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
356 </li>
357 <li>
358 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
359 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
360 Kernel</uri>
361 </li>
362 </ul>
363
364 </body>
365 </section>
366 <section>
367 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
368 <subsection>
369 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <p>
373 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
374 </p>
375
376 <p>
377 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
378 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
379 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
380 </p>
381
382 <p>
383 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
384 Collection and several other key system programs.
385 </p>
386
387 <p>
388 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
389 sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
390 with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
391 </p>
392
393 </body>
394 </subsection>
395 <subsection>
396 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
397 <body>
398
399 <p>
400 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
401 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
402 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
403 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
404 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
405 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
409 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
410 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
411 </pre>
412
413 </body>
414 </subsection>
415 <subsection id="bootstrap">
416 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
417 <body>
418
419 <p>
420 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
421 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
422 takes quite some time to finish.
423 </p>
424
425 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
426 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
427 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
428 </pre>
429
430 <p>
431 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
432 to Stage3</uri>.
433 </p>
434
435 </body>
436 </subsection>
437 </section>
438 <section>
439 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
440 <subsection>
441 <title>Introduction</title>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
446 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
447 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
448 </p>
449
450 <p>
451 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
452 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
453 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
454 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
455 </p>
456
457 </body>
458 </subsection>
459 <subsection>
460 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
461 <body>
462
463 <p>
464 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
465 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
466 built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
467 <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
468 </p>
469
470 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
471 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
472 </pre>
473
474 <p>
475 Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
476 <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient: it will rebuild the
477 applications that are affected by a change in USE flags (compared to the USE
478 flag we used while building the stage2). If you didn't touch
479 the USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
480 </p>
481
482 </body>
483 </subsection>
484 <subsection>
485 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
486 <body>
487
488 <p>
489 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
490 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
491 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
492 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
493 </p>
494
495 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
496 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
497 </pre>
498
499 </body>
500 </subsection>
501 <subsection>
502 <title>Building the System</title>
503 <body>
504
505 <p>
506 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
507 go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
508 complete.
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption = "Building the System">
512 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
513 </pre>
514
515 <p>
516 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
517 <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
518 </p>
519
520 <p>
521 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
522 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
523 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
524 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
525 </p>
526
527 <p>
528 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
529 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
530 </p>
531
532 </body>
533 </subsection>
534 </section>
535
536 </sections>

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