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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.22 2005/07/30 11:31:02 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.10</version>
12 <date>2005-08-09</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83 chrooted environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 </pre>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114 # <i>env-update</i>
115 * Caching service dependencies...
116 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 has some sections left :-)
123 </p>
124
125 </body>
126 </subsection>
127 <subsection>
128 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 <body>
130
131 <p>
132 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133 --sync</c> does this for you.
134 </p>
135
136 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
139 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
140 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
141 </pre>
142
143 <p>
144 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
145 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
146 you.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
151 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
152 on during the installation.
153 </p>
154
155 </body>
156 </subsection>
157 <subsection>
158 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
159 <body>
160
161 <p>
162 First, a small definition is in place.
163 </p>
164
165 <p>
166 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
167 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
168 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
169 Gentoo developers.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
174 and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
175 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
176 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
177 available as well. We will talk about those later.
178 </p>
179
180 <p>
181 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
182 </p>
183
184 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
185 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
186 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/
187 </pre>
188
189 <p>
190 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
191 profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
192 default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
193 </p>
194
195 <p>
196 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
197 If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
198 additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
199 </p>
200
201 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
202 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/2.4</i>
203 /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/2.4
204 </pre>
205
206 <p>
207 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
208 complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
209 the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
210 </p>
211
212 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
213 <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
214 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
215 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
216 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
217 total 12
218 -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
219 -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
220 -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
221 </pre>
222
223 <p>
224 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2005.1.
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="PPC Profiles">
228 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines)</comment>
229 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc /etc/make.profile</i>
230 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
231 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
232 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
233 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
234 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
235 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
236 <comment>(G4 Pegasos profile)</comment>
237 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
238 </pre>
239
240 <p>
241 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2005.1.
242 </p>
243
244 <pre caption="PPC64 Profiles">
245 <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
246 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
247 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
248 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
249 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
250 <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
251 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
252 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
253 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
254 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
255 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
256 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
257 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
258 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
259 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
260 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
261 </pre>
262
263 </body>
264 </subsection>
265 <subsection id="configure_USE">
266 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
267 <body>
268
269 <p>
270 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
271 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
272 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
273 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
274 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
275 (X-server).
276 </p>
277
278 <p>
279 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
280 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
281 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
282 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
283 </p>
284
285 <p>
286 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
287 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
288 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
289 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
290 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
291 tweaked for GNOME.
292 </p>
293
294 <p>
295 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
296 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
297 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
298 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
299 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
300 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
301 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
302 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
303 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
304 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
305 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
306 </p>
307
308 <p>
309 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
310 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
311 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
312 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
316 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
317 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
318 </pre>
319
320 <p>
321 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
322 and CD Recording support:
323 </p>
324
325 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
326 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
327 </pre>
328
329 <pre caption="USE setting">
330 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
331 </pre>
332
333 </body>
334 </subsection>
335 <subsection>
336 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
337 <body>
338
339 <p>
340 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
341 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
342 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
343 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
344 if you know what locales to choose. This will not work for the bootstrapping,
345 but when you recompile glibc afterwards it will.
346 </p>
347
348 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
349 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
350 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
351 </pre>
352
353 <p>
354 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
355 </p>
356
357 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
358 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
359 </pre>
360
361 <p>
362 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
363 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
364 </p>
365
366 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
367 en_US/ISO-8859-1
368 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
369 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
370 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
371 </pre>
372
373 </body>
374 </subsection>
375 </section>
376 <section>
377 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
378 <body>
379
380 <p>
381 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
382 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
383 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
384 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
385 </p>
386
387 <ul>
388 <li>
389 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
390 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
391 to Stage2</uri>)
392 </li>
393 <li>
394 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
395 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
396 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
397 </li>
398 <li>
399 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
400 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
401 Kernel</uri>
402 </li>
403 </ul>
404
405 </body>
406 </section>
407 <section>
408 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
409 <subsection>
410 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
411 <body>
412
413 <p>
414 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
415 </p>
416
417 <p>
418 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
419 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
420 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
421 </p>
422
423 <p>
424 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
425 Collection and several other key system programs.
426 </p>
427
428 <p>
429 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
430 sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
431 with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
432 </p>
433
434 </body>
435 </subsection>
436 <subsection>
437 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
438 <body>
439
440 <p>
441 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
442 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
443 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
444 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
445 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
446 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
447 </p>
448
449 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
450 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
451 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
452 </pre>
453
454 </body>
455 </subsection>
456 <subsection id="bootstrap">
457 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
458 <body>
459
460 <p>
461 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
462 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
463 takes quite some time to finish.
464 </p>
465
466 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
467 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
468 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
469 </pre>
470
471 <p>
472 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
473 to Stage3</uri>.
474 </p>
475
476 </body>
477 </subsection>
478 </section>
479 <section>
480 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
481 <subsection>
482 <title>Introduction</title>
483 <body>
484
485 <p>
486 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
487 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
488 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
489 </p>
490
491 <p>
492 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
493 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
494 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
495 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
496 </p>
497
498 </body>
499 </subsection>
500 <subsection>
501 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
502 <body>
503
504 <p>
505 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
506 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
507 built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
508 <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
512 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
513 </pre>
514
515 <p>
516 Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
517 <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient: it will rebuild the
518 applications that are affected by a change in USE flags (compared to the USE
519 flag we used while building the stage2). If you didn't touch
520 the USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
521 </p>
522
523 </body>
524 </subsection>
525 <subsection>
526 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
527 <body>
528
529 <p>
530 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
531 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
532 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
533 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
534 </p>
535
536 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
537 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
538 </pre>
539
540 </body>
541 </subsection>
542 <subsection>
543 <title>Building the System</title>
544 <body>
545
546 <p>
547 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
548 go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
549 complete.
550 </p>
551
552 <pre caption = "Building the System">
553 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
554 </pre>
555
556 <p>
557 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
558 <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
559 </p>
560
561 <p>
562 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
563 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
564 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
565 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
566 </p>
567
568 <p>
569 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
570 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
571 </p>
572
573 </body>
574 </subsection>
575 </section>
576
577 </sections>

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