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#105646 bind-mount /dev before chrooting

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.87 2006/01/05 11:54:56 rane Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.15</version>
12 <date>2006-01-19</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
83 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
89 </pre>
90
91 </body>
92 </subsection>
93 <subsection>
94 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
99 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
100 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
101 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
102 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
107 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
108 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
109 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
110 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
114 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
115 # <i>env-update</i>
116 * Caching service dependencies...
117 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
118 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
119 </pre>
120
121 <p>
122 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
123 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
124 has some sections left :-)
125 </p>
126
127 </body>
128 </subsection>
129 </section>
130
131 <section>
132 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
133 <subsection>
134 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
135 <body>
136
137 <p>
138 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
139 --sync</c> does this for you.
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
143 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
144 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
145 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
146 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
151 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
152 you.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
157 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
158 on during the installation.
159 </p>
160
161 </body>
162 </subsection>
163 <subsection>
164 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
165 <body>
166
167 <p>
168 First, a small definition is in place.
169 </p>
170
171 <p>
172 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
173 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
174 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
175 Gentoo developers.
176 </p>
177
178 <p>
179 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
180 and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
181 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
182 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
183 available as well. We will talk about those later.
184 </p>
185
186 <p>
187 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
188 </p>
189
190 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
191 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
192 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
197 profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
198 default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
199 </p>
200
201 <p>
202 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
203 If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
204 additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
205 </p>
206
207 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
208 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
209 /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
210 </pre>
211
212 <p>
213 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
214 complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
215 the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
216 </p>
217
218 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
219 <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
220 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
221 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
222 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
223 total 12
224 -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
225 -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
226 -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
227 </pre>
228
229 <p>
230 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2005.1.
231 </p>
232
233 <pre caption="PPC Profiles">
234 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines)</comment>
235 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc /etc/make.profile</i>
236 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
237 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
238 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
239 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
240 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
241 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
242 <comment>(G4 Pegasos profile)</comment>
243 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2005.1.
248 </p>
249
250 <pre caption="PPC64 Profiles">
251 <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
252 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
253 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
254 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
255 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
256 <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
257 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
258 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
259 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
260 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
261 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
262 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
263 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
264 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
265 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
266 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
267 </pre>
268
269 </body>
270 </subsection>
271 <subsection id="configure_USE">
272 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>
276 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
277 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
278 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
279 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
280 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
281 (X-server).
282 </p>
283
284 <p>
285 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
286 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
287 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
288 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
289 </p>
290
291 <p>
292 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
293 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
294 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
295 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
296 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
297 tweaked for GNOME.
298 </p>
299
300 <p>
301 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
302 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
303 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
304 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
305 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
306 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
307 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
308 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
309 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
310 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
311 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
312 </p>
313
314 <p>
315 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
316 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
317 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
318 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
322 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
323 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
324 </pre>
325
326 <p>
327 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
328 and CD Recording support:
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
332 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <pre caption="USE setting">
336 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
337 </pre>
338
339 </body>
340 </subsection>
341 <subsection>
342 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
343 <body>
344
345 <p>
346 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
347 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
348 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
349 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
350 if you know what locales to choose.
351 </p>
352
353 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
354 # <i>mkdir -p /etc/portage</i>
355 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
356 </pre>
357
358 <p>
359 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
360 </p>
361
362 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
363 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
364 </pre>
365
366 <p>
367 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
368 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
372 en_US/ISO-8859-1
373 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
374 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
375 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
376 </pre>
377
378 <p>
379 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
380 </p>
381
382 </body>
383 </subsection>
384 </section>
385 </sections>

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