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Sun Sep 17 12:16:59 2006 UTC (8 years, 2 months ago) by nightmorph
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updated handbook for new desktop/server profiles, see bug 146277

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.98 2006/08/30 22:52:28 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>7.1</version>
12 <date>2006-09-17</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
83 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
89 </pre>
90
91 </body>
92 </subsection>
93 <subsection>
94 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
99 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
100 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
101 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
102 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
107 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
108 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
109 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
110 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
114 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
115 # <i>env-update</i>
116 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
117 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
118 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
119 </pre>
120
121 <p>
122 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
123 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
124 has some sections left :-)
125 </p>
126
127 </body>
128 </subsection>
129 </section>
130
131 <section>
132 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
133 <subsection>
134 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
135 <body>
136
137 <p>
138 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
139 --sync</c> does this for you.
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
143 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
144 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
145 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
146 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
151 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
152 you.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
157 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
158 </p>
159
160 </body>
161 </subsection>
162 <subsection>
163 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
164 <body>
165
166 <p>
167 First, a small definition is in place.
168 </p>
169
170 <p>
171 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
172 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
173 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
174 Gentoo developers.
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
179 and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
180 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
181 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
182 available as well. We will talk about those later.
183 </p>
184
185 <p>
186 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
187 </p>
188
189 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
190 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
191 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1/
192 </pre>
193
194 <p>
195 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
196 profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
197 default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
198 </p>
199
200 <p>
201 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
202 architectures. Look inside the <path>2006.1/</path> profile to see if there is
203 one available for your architecture. You may wish to view the <c>desktop</c>
204 profile's <path>make.defaults</path> to determine if it fits your needs.
205 </p>
206
207 <p>
208 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
209 If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
210 additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
211 </p>
212
213 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
214 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
215 /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
216 </pre>
217
218 <p>
219 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
220 complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
221 the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
225 <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
226 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
227 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
228 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
229 total 12
230 -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
231 -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
232 -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
233 </pre>
234
235 <p>
236 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="PPC Profiles">
240 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines, minimal)</comment>
241 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1 /etc/make.profile</i>
242 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
243 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
244 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
245 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
246 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
247 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
248 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) Pegasos profile)</comment>
249 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
250 </pre>
251
252 <p>
253 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
254 </p>
255
256 <pre caption="PPC64 Profiles">
257 <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
258 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
259 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
260 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
261 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
262 <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
263 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
264 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
265 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
266 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
267 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
268 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
269 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
270 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
271 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
272 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
273 </pre>
274
275 </body>
276 </subsection>
277 <subsection id="configure_USE">
278 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
279 <body>
280
281 <p>
282 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
283 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
284 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
285 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
286 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
287 (X-server).
288 </p>
289
290 <p>
291 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
292 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
293 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
294 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
295 </p>
296
297 <p>
298 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
299 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
300 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
301 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
302 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
303 tweaked for GNOME.
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
308 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
309 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
310 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
311 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
312 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
313 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
314 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
315 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
316 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
317 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
318 </p>
319
320 <p>
321 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
322 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
323 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
324 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
325 </p>
326
327 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
328 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
329 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
330 </pre>
331
332 <p>
333 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
334 and CD Recording support:
335 </p>
336
337 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
338 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
339 </pre>
340
341 <pre caption="USE setting">
342 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
343 </pre>
344
345 </body>
346 </subsection>
347 <subsection>
348 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
349 <body>
350
351 <p>
352 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
353 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
354 </p>
355
356 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
357 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
358 </pre>
359
360 <p>
361 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
362 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
363 </p>
364
365 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
366 en_US ISO-8859-1
367 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
368 de_DE ISO-8859-1
369 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
370 </pre>
371
372 <p>
373 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
374 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
375 </p>
376
377 <note>
378 <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
379 an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
380 </note>
381
382 <p>
383 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
384 </p>
385
386 </body>
387 </subsection>
388 </section>
389 </sections>

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