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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86-bootloader.xml,v 1.45 2006/05/28 14:39:58 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>3.0</version>
12 <date>2006-07-26</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Making your Choice</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Now that your kernel is configured and compiled and the necessary system
22 configuration files are filled in correctly, it is time to install a
23 program that will fire up your kernel when you start the system. Such a
24 program is called a <e>bootloader</e>.
25 </p>
26
27 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
28 For x86, Gentoo Linux provides <uri
29 link="#grub">GRUB</uri> and <uri link="#lilo">LILO</uri>.
30 </p>
31
32 <p>
33 But before we install the bootloader, we inform you how to configure
34 framebuffer (assuming you want it of course). With framebuffer you can run the
35 Linux command line with (limited) graphical features (such as using the nice
36 bootsplash image Gentoo provides).
37 </p>
38
39 </body>
40 </subsection>
41 <subsection>
42 <title>Optional: Framebuffer</title>
43 <body>
44
45 <p>
46 <e>If</e> you have configured your kernel with framebuffer support (or you used
47 <c>genkernel</c> default kernel configuration), you can activate it by adding a
48 <c>vga</c> and/or a <c>video</c> statement to your bootloader configuration
49 file.
50 </p>
51
52 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
53 First of all, you need to know what type of framebuffer device you're using. If
54 you use a Gentoo patched kernel tree (such as <c>gentoo-sources</c>) you will
55 have had the possibility of selecting <c>vesafb-tng</c> as the <e>VESA driver
56 type</e> (which is default for these kernel sources). If this is the case, you
57 are using <c>vesafb-tng</c> and <e>do not need</e> to set a <c>vga</c>
58 statement. Otherwise you are using the <c>vesafb</c> driver and <e>need</e> to
59 set the <c>vga</c> statement.
60 </p>
61
62 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
63 64-bit systems must use the the <c>vesafb</c> driver, and need the <c>vga</c>
64 statement.
65 </p>
66
67 <p>
68 The <c>vga</c> statement controls the resolution and color depth of your
69 framebuffer screen for <c>vesafb</c>. As stated in
70 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/vesafb.txt</path> (which gets installed
71 when you install a kernel source package), you need to pass the VESA number
72 corresponding to the requested resolution and color depth to it.
73 </p>
74
75 <p>
76 The following table lists the available resolutions and color depths and
77 matches those against the value that you need to pass on to the <c>vga</c>
78 statement.
79 </p>
80
81 <table>
82 <tr>
83 <ti></ti>
84 <th>640x480</th>
85 <th>800x600</th>
86 <th>1024x768</th>
87 <th>1280x1024</th>
88 </tr>
89 <tr>
90 <th>256</th>
91 <ti>0x301</ti>
92 <ti>0x303</ti>
93 <ti>0x305</ti>
94 <ti>0x307</ti>
95 </tr>
96 <tr>
97 <th>32k</th>
98 <ti>0x310</ti>
99 <ti>0x313</ti>
100 <ti>0x316</ti>
101 <ti>0x319</ti>
102 </tr>
103 <tr>
104 <th>64k</th>
105 <ti>0x311</ti>
106 <ti>0x314</ti>
107 <ti>0x317</ti>
108 <ti>0x31A</ti>
109 </tr>
110 <tr>
111 <th>16M</th>
112 <ti>0x312</ti>
113 <ti>0x315</ti>
114 <ti>0x318</ti>
115 <ti>0x31B</ti>
116 </tr>
117 </table>
118
119 <p>
120 The <c>video</c> statement controls framebuffer display options. It needs to be
121 given the framebuffer driver (<c>vesafb</c> for 2.6 kernels, or <c>vesa</c> for
122 2.4 kernels) followed by the control statements you wish to enable. All
123 variables are listed in
124 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/vesafb.txt</path>. The most-used options
125 are:
126 </p>
127
128 <table>
129 <tr>
130 <th>Control</th>
131 <th>Description</th>
132 </tr>
133 <tr>
134 <ti>ywrap</ti>
135 <ti>
136 Assume that the graphical card can wrap around its memory (i.e. continue at
137 the beginning when it has approached the end)
138 </ti>
139 </tr>
140 <tr>
141 <ti>mtrr:n</ti>
142 <ti>
143 Setup MTRR registers. <c>n</c> can be:<br/>
144 0 - disabled<br/>
145 1 - uncachable<br/>
146 2 - write-back<br/>
147 3 - write-combining<br/>
148 4 - write-through
149 </ti>
150 </tr>
151 <tr test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
152 <ti><c>mode</c></ti>
153 <ti>
154 (<c>vesafb-tng</c> only)<br/>
155 Set up the resolution, color depth and refresh rate. For instance,
156 <c>1024x768-32@85</c> for a resolution of 1024x768, 32 bit color depth and a
157 refresh rate of 85 Hz.
158 </ti>
159 </tr>
160 </table>
161
162 </body>
163 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
164
165 <p>
166 The result of those two statements could be something like <c>vga=0x318
167 video=vesafb:mtrr:3,ywrap</c>. Write this setting down; you will need it
168 shortly.
169 </p>
170
171 <p>
172 While LILO does work on AMD64, Gentoo only supports using GRUB. Now continue by
173 its <uri link="#grub">installation</uri>.
174 </p>
175
176 </body>
177 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
178
179 <p>
180 The result of those two statements could be something like <c>vga=0x318
181 video=vesafb:mtrr:3,ywrap</c> or
182 <c>video=vesafb:mtrr:3,ywrap,1024x768-32@85</c>. Write this setting down; you
183 will need it shortly.
184 </p>
185
186 <p>
187 Now continue by installing <uri link="#grub">GRUB</uri> <e>or</e> <uri
188 link="#lilo">LILO</uri>.
189 </p>
190
191 </body>
192 </subsection>
193 </section>
194 <section id="grub">
195 <title>Default: Using GRUB</title>
196 <subsection>
197 <title>Understanding GRUB's terminology</title>
198 <body>
199
200 <p>
201 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
202 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
203 <path>/dev/hda1</path> (for IDE drives) or <path>/dev/sda1</path> (for
204 SATA/SCSI drives) will most likely be called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB.
205 Notice the parentheses around the <path>hd0,0</path> - they are required.
206 </p>
207
208 <p>
209 Hard drives count from zero rather than "a" and partitions start at zero
210 rather than one. Be aware too that with the hd devices, only hard drives are
211 counted, not atapi-ide devices such as cdrom players and burners. Also, the
212 same construct is used with SCSI drives. (Normally they get higher numbers
213 than IDE drives except when the BIOS is configured to boot from SCSI devices.)
214 When you ask the BIOS to boot from a different hard disk (for instance your
215 primary slave), <e>that</e> harddisk is seen as <path>hd0</path>.
216 </p>
217
218 <p>
219 Assuming you have a hard drive on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on
220 <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive
221 on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets
222 translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is
223 indeed, but as we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism
224 that comes handy for those of you having a lot of hard drives and
225 partitions and who are a little lost in the GRUB numbering scheme.
226 </p>
227
228 <p>
229 Having gotten the feel for that, it is time to install GRUB.
230 </p>
231
232 </body>
233 </subsection>
234 <subsection>
235 <title>Installing GRUB</title>
236 <body>
237
238 <p>
239 To install GRUB, let's first emerge it:
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
243 # <i>emerge grub</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 Although GRUB is now installed, we still need to write up a
248 configuration file for it and place GRUB in our MBR so that GRUB automatically
249 boots your newly created kernel. Create <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> with
250 <c>nano</c> (or, if applicable, another editor):
251 </p>
252
253 <pre caption="Creating /boot/grub/grub.conf">
254 # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
255 </pre>
256
257 <p>
258 Now we are going to write up a <path>grub.conf</path>. Below you'll find two
259 possible <path>grub.conf</path> for the partitioning example we use in this
260 guide. We've only extensively commented the first <path>grub.conf</path>. Make
261 sure you use <e>your</e> kernel image filename and, if appropriate, <e>your</e>
262 initrd image filename.
263 </p>
264
265 <ul>
266 <li>
267 The first <path>grub.conf</path> is for people who have not used
268 <c>genkernel</c> to build their kernel
269 </li>
270 <li>
271 The second <path>grub.conf</path> is for people who have used
272 <c>genkernel</c> to build their kernel
273 </li>
274 </ul>
275
276 <note>
277 If your root filesystem is JFS, you <e>must</e> add " ro" to the <c>kernel</c>
278 line since JFS needs to replay its log before it allows read-write mounting.
279 </note>
280
281 <pre caption="grub.conf for non-genkernel users">
282 <comment># Which listing to boot as default. 0 is the first, 1 the second etc.</comment>
283 default 0
284 <comment># How many seconds to wait before the default listing is booted.</comment>
285 timeout 30
286 <comment># Nice, fat splash-image to spice things up :)
287 # Comment out if you don't have a graphics card installed</comment>
288 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
289
290 title=Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/>
291 <comment># Partition where the kernel image (or operating system) is located</comment>
292 root (hd0,0)
293 kernel /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/> root=/dev/hda3
294
295 <comment># The next four lines are only if you dualboot with a Windows system.</comment>
296 <comment># In this case, Windows is hosted on /dev/hda6.</comment>
297 title=Windows XP
298 rootnoverify (hd0,5)
299 makeactive
300 chainloader +1
301 </pre>
302
303 <pre caption="grub.conf for genkernel users">
304 default 0
305 timeout 30
306 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
307
308 title=Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/>
309 root (hd0,0)
310 kernel /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-name"/> root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/hda3 udev
311 initrd /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/>
312
313 <comment># Only in case you want to dual-boot</comment>
314 title=Windows XP
315 rootnoverify (hd0,5)
316 makeactive
317 chainloader +1
318 </pre>
319
320 <note>
321 The <c>udev</c> mentioned at the end of the kernel line is needed to work around
322 a bug in some genkernel versions <e>if</e> you use udev in the first place
323 (which is the default behaviour).
324 </note>
325
326 <p>
327 If you used a different partitioning scheme and/or kernel image, adjust
328 accordingly. However, make sure that anything that follows a GRUB-device (such
329 as <path>(hd0,0)</path>) is relative to the mountpoint, not the root. In other
330 words, <path>(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz</path> is in reality
331 <path>/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz</path> since <path>(hd0,0)</path> is
332 <path>/boot</path>.
333 </p>
334
335 <p>
336 Besides, if you chose to use a different partitioning scheme and did not put
337 <path>/boot</path> in a separate partition, the <path>/boot</path> prefix used
338 in the above code samples is really <e>required</e>. If you followed our
339 suggested partitioning plan, the <path>/boot</path> prefix it not required, but
340 a <path>boot</path> symlink makes it work. In short, the above examples should
341 work whether you defined a separate <path>/boot</path> partition or not.
342 </p>
343
344 <p>
345 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add
346 them to the end of the kernel command. We're already passing one option
347 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c> or <c>real_root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others
348 as well, such as the <c>video</c> and/or <c>vga</c> statements for framebuffer
349 as we discussed previously.
350 </p>
351
352 <p>
353 If you're using a 2.6.7 or higher kernel and you jumpered your harddrive
354 because the BIOS can't handle large harddrives you'll need to append
355 <c>hdx=stroke</c>.
356 </p>
357
358 <p>
359 <c>genkernel</c> users should know that their kernels use the same boot options
360 as is used for the Installation CD. For instance, if you have SCSI devices, you
361 should add <c>doscsi</c> as kernel option.
362 </p>
363
364 <p>
365 Now save the <path>grub.conf</path> file and exit. You still need to install
366 GRUB in the MBR (Master Boot Record) so that GRUB is automatically executed when
367 you boot your system.
368 </p>
369
370 <p>
371 The GRUB developers recommend the use of <c>grub-install</c>. However, if for
372 some reason <c>grub-install</c> fails to work correctly you still have the
373 option to manually install GRUB.
374 </p>
375
376 <p>
377 Continue with <uri link="#grub-install-auto">Default: Setting up GRUB using
378 grub-install</uri> or <uri link="#grub-install-manual">Alternative: Setting up
379 GRUB using manual instructions</uri>.
380 </p>
381
382 </body>
383 </subsection>
384 <subsection id="grub-install-auto">
385 <title>Default: Setting up GRUB using grub-install</title>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 To install GRUB you will need to issue the <c>grub-install</c> command.
390 However, <c>grub-install</c> won't work off-the-shelf since we are inside a
391 chrooted environment. We need to create <path>/etc/mtab</path> which lists all
392 mounted filesystems. Fortunately, there is an easy way to accomplish this -
393 just copy over <path>/proc/mounts</path> to <path>/etc/mtab</path>, excluding
394 the <c>rootfs</c> line if you haven't created a separate boot partition. The
395 following command will work in both cases:
396 </p>
397
398 <pre caption="Creating /etc/mtab">
399 # <i>grep -v rootfs /proc/mounts &gt; /etc/mtab</i>
400 </pre>
401
402 <p>
403 Now we can install GRUB using <c>grub-install</c>:
404 </p>
405
406 <pre caption="Running grub-install">
407 # <i>grub-install /dev/hda</i>
408 </pre>
409
410 <p>
411 If you have more questions regarding GRUB, please consult the <uri
412 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-faq.html">GRUB FAQ</uri> or the
413 <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/">GRUB Manual</uri>.
414 </p>
415
416 <p>
417 Continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
418 </p>
419
420 </body>
421 </subsection>
422 <subsection id="grub-install-manual">
423 <title>Alternative: Setting up GRUB using manual instructions</title>
424 <body>
425
426 <p>
427 To start configuring GRUB, you type in <c>grub</c>. You'll be presented
428 with the <path>grub&gt;</path> grub command-line prompt. Now, you need to type
429 in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive.
430 </p>
431
432 <pre caption="Starting the GRUB shell">
433 # <i>grub</i>
434 </pre>
435
436 <note>
437 If your system does not have any floppy drives, add the <c>--no-floppy</c>
438 option to the above command to prevent grub from probing the (non-existing)
439 floppy drives.
440 </note>
441
442 <p>
443 In the example configuration we want to install GRUB so that it reads its
444 information from the boot partition <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path>, and
445 installs the GRUB boot record on the hard drive's MBR (master boot record) so
446 that the first thing we see when we turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. Of
447 course, if you haven't followed the example configuration during the
448 installation, change the commands accordingly.
449 </p>
450
451 <p>
452 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB.
453 For instance, if you type in "<c>root (</c>" followed by a TAB, you will
454 be presented with a list of devices (such as <path>hd0</path>). If you
455 type in "<c>root (hd0,</c>" followed by a TAB, you will receive a list
456 of available partitions to choose from (such as <path>hd0,0</path>).
457 </p>
458
459 <p>
460 By using the tab completion, setting up GRUB should be not that hard.
461 Now go on, configure GRUB, shall we? :-)
462 </p>
463
464 <pre caption="Installing GRUB in the MBR">
465 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Specify where your /boot partition resides)</comment>
466 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Install GRUB in the MBR)</comment>
467 grub&gt; <i>quit</i> <comment>(Exit the GRUB shell)</comment>
468 </pre>
469
470 <note>
471 If you want to install GRUB in a certain partition instead of the MBR,
472 you have to alter the <c>setup</c> command so it points to the right
473 partition. For instance, if you want GRUB installed in
474 <path>/dev/hda3</path>, then the command becomes <c>setup (hd0,2)</c>.
475 Few users however want to do this.
476 </note>
477
478 <p>
479 If you have more questions regarding GRUB, please consult the <uri
480 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-faq.html">GRUB FAQ</uri> or the <uri
481 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/">GRUB Manual</uri>.
482 </p>
483
484 <p>
485 Continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
486 </p>
487
488 </body>
489 </subsection>
490 </section>
491 <section id="lilo" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
492 <title>Alternative: Using LILO</title>
493 <subsection>
494 <title>Installing LILO</title>
495 <body>
496
497 <p>
498 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
499 bootloaders. However, it lacks some features that GRUB has (which is
500 also the reason why GRUB is currently gaining popularity). The reason
501 why LILO is still used is that, on some systems, GRUB doesn't work and
502 LILO does. Of course, it is also used because some people know LILO and
503 want to stick with it. Either way, Gentoo supports both, and apparently
504 you have chosen to use LILO.
505 </p>
506
507 <p>
508 Installing LILO is a breeze; just use <c>emerge</c>.
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption="Installing LILO">
512 # <i>emerge lilo</i>
513 </pre>
514
515 </body>
516 </subsection>
517 <subsection>
518 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
519 <body>
520
521 <p>
522 To configure LILO, you must create <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>. Fire up
523 your favorite editor (in this handbook we use <c>nano</c> for
524 consistency) and create the file.
525 </p>
526
527 <pre caption="Creating /etc/lilo.conf">
528 # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
529 </pre>
530
531 <p>
532 Some sections ago we have asked you to remember the kernel-image name
533 you have created. In the next example <path>lilo.conf</path> we use the
534 example partitioning scheme. There are two separate parts:
535 </p>
536
537 <ul>
538 <li>
539 One for those who have not used <c>genkernel</c> to build their kernel
540 </li>
541 <li>
542 One for those who have used <c>genkernel</c> to build their kernel
543 </li>
544 </ul>
545
546 <p>
547 Make sure you use <e>your</e> kernel image filename and, if appropriate,
548 <e>your</e> initrd image filename.
549 </p>
550
551 <note>
552 If your root filesystem is JFS, you <e>must</e> add a <c>append="ro"</c>
553 line after each boot item since JFS needs to replay its log before it allows
554 read-write mounting.
555 </note>
556
557 <pre caption="Example /etc/lilo.conf">
558 boot=/dev/hda <comment># Install LILO in the MBR</comment>
559 prompt <comment># Give the user the chance to select another section</comment>
560 timeout=50 <comment># Wait 5 (five) seconds before booting the default section</comment>
561 default=gentoo <comment># When the timeout has passed, boot the "gentoo" section</comment>
562
563 <comment># For non-genkernel users</comment>
564 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
565 label=gentoo <comment># Name we give to this section</comment>
566 read-only <comment># Start with a read-only root. Do not alter!</comment>
567 root=/dev/hda3 <comment># Location of the root filesystem</comment>
568
569 <comment># For genkernel users</comment>
570 image=/boot/<keyval id="genkernel-name"/>
571 label=gentoo
572 read-only
573 root=/dev/ram0
574 append="init=/linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/hda3 udev"
575 initrd=/boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/>
576
577 <comment># The next two lines are only if you dualboot with a Windows system.</comment>
578 <comment># In this case, Windows is hosted on /dev/hda6.</comment>
579 other=/dev/hda6
580 label=windows
581 </pre>
582
583 <note>
584 The <c>udev</c> mentioned at the end of the append line is needed to work around
585 a bug in some genkernel versions <e>if</e> you use udev in the first place
586 (which is the default behaviour).
587 </note>
588
589 <note>
590 If you use a different partitioning scheme and/or kernel image, adjust
591 accordingly.
592 </note>
593
594 <p>
595 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, add an
596 <c>append</c> statement to the section. As an example, we add the
597 <c>video</c> statement to enable framebuffer:
598 </p>
599
600 <pre caption="Using append to add kernel options">
601 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
602 label=gentoo
603 read-only
604 root=/dev/hda3
605 <i>append="video=vesafb:mtrr,ywrap,1024x768-32@85"</i>
606 </pre>
607
608 <p>
609 If you're using a 2.6.7 or higher kernel and you jumpered your harddrive
610 because the BIOS can't handle large harddrives you'll need to append
611 <c>hdx=stroke</c>.
612 </p>
613
614 <p>
615 <c>genkernel</c> users should know that their kernels use the same boot options
616 as is used for the Installation CD. For instance, if you have SCSI devices, you
617 should add <c>doscsi</c> as kernel option.
618 </p>
619
620 <p>
621 Now save the file and exit. To finish up, you have to run <c>/sbin/lilo</c> so
622 LILO can apply the <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> to your system (i.e. install
623 itself on the disk). Keep in mind that you'll also have to run
624 <c>/sbin/lilo</c> every time you install a new kernel or make any changes to
625 the menu.
626 </p>
627
628 <pre caption="Finishing the LILO installation">
629 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
630 </pre>
631
632 <p>
633 If you have more questions regarding LILO, please consult its <uri
634 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LILO_(boot_loader)">wikipedia page</uri>.
635 </p>
636
637 <p>
638 You can now continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
639 </p>
640
641 </body>
642 </subsection>
643 </section>
644 <section id="reboot">
645 <title>Rebooting the System</title>
646 <subsection>
647 <body>
648
649 <p>
650 Exit the chrooted environment and unmount all mounted partitions. Then type in
651 that one magical command you have been waiting for: <c>reboot</c>.
652 </p>
653
654 <pre caption="Unmounting all partitions and rebooting">
655 # <i>exit</i>
656 cdimage ~# <i>cd</i>
657 cdimage ~# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo/dev /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo</i>
658 cdimage ~# <i>reboot</i>
659 </pre>
660
661 <p>
662 Of course, don't forget to remove the bootable CD, otherwise the CD will be
663 booted again instead of your new Gentoo system.
664 </p>
665
666 <p>
667 Once rebooted in your Gentoo installation, finish up with <uri
668 link="?part=1&amp;chap=11">Finalizing your Gentoo Installation</uri>.
669 </p>
670
671 </body>
672 </subsection>
673 </section>
674 </sections>

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