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Revision 1.28 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Sep 11 22:49:21 2012 UTC (2 years, 3 months ago) by nightmorph
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File MIME type: application/xml
update handbooks for initramfs changes needed for separate /usr and other partitions. bug #415175, bug #434550, bug #434554, bug #434732

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-bootloader.xml,v 1.27 2012/08/05 01:21:49 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>12</version>
12 <date>2012-09-11</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Making your Choice</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Now that your kernel is configured and compiled and the necessary system
22 configuration files are filled in correctly, it is time to install a
23 program that will fire up your kernel when you start the system. Such a
24 program is called a <e>bootloader</e>.
25 </p>
26
27 </body>
28 <body test="contains('AMD64 x86', func:keyval('arch'))">
29 <p>
30 For <keyval id="arch"/>, Gentoo Linux provides <uri
31 link="#grub">GRUB</uri> and <uri link="#lilo">LILO</uri>.
32 </p>
33
34 </body>
35 <body>
36 <p>
37 But before we install the bootloader, we inform you how to configure
38 framebuffer (assuming you want it of course). With framebuffer you can run the
39 Linux command line with (limited) graphical features (such as using the nice
40 bootsplash image Gentoo provides).
41 </p>
42
43 </body>
44 </subsection>
45 <subsection>
46 <title>Optional: Framebuffer</title>
47 <body>
48
49 <p>
50 <e>If</e> you have configured your kernel with framebuffer support (or you used
51 <c>genkernel</c> default kernel configuration), you can activate it by adding a
52 a <c>video</c> statement to your bootloader configuration file.
53 </p>
54
55 <p>
56 First of all, you need to know your framebuffer device. You should have used
57 <c>uvesafb</c> as the <e>VESA driver</e>.
58 </p>
59
60 <p>
61 The <c>video</c> statement controls framebuffer display options. It needs to be
62 given the framebuffer driver followed by the control statements you wish to
63 enable. All variables are listed in
64 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/uvesafb.txt</path>. The most-used options
65 are:
66 </p>
67
68 <table>
69 <tr>
70 <th>Control</th>
71 <th>Description</th>
72 </tr>
73 <tr>
74 <ti>ywrap</ti>
75 <ti>
76 Assume that the graphical card can wrap around its memory (i.e. continue at
77 the beginning when it has approached the end)
78 </ti>
79 </tr>
80 <tr>
81 <ti>mtrr:<c>n</c></ti>
82 <ti>
83 Setup MTRR registers. <c>n</c> can be:<br/>
84 0 - disabled<br/>
85 1 - uncachable<br/>
86 2 - write-back<br/>
87 3 - write-combining<br/>
88 4 - write-through
89 </ti>
90 </tr>
91 <tr>
92 <ti><c>mode</c></ti>
93 <ti>
94 Set up the resolution, color depth and refresh rate. For instance,
95 <c>1024x768-32@85</c> for a resolution of 1024x768, 32 bit color depth and a
96 refresh rate of 85 Hz.
97 </ti>
98 </tr>
99 </table>
100
101 <p>
102 The result could be something like
103 <c>video=uvesafb:mtrr:3,ywrap,1024x768-32@85</c>. Write this setting down; you
104 will need it shortly.
105 </p>
106
107 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
108 Now, you should install the <uri link="#elilo">elilo bootloader</uri>.
109 </p>
110
111 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
112 Now continue by installing <uri link="#grub">GRUB</uri> <e>or</e> <uri
113 link="#lilo">LILO</uri>.
114 </p>
115
116 </body>
117 </subsection>
118 </section>
119 <section id="grub" test="contains('AMD64 x86',func:keyval('arch'))">
120 <title>Default: Using GRUB</title>
121 <subsection>
122 <title>Understanding GRUB's terminology</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <p>
126 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
127 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
128 <path>/dev/sda1</path> will most likely be called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under
129 GRUB. Notice the parentheses around the <path>hd0,0</path> - they are
130 required.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 Hard drives count from zero rather than "a" and partitions start at zero
135 rather than one. Be aware too that with the hd devices, only hard drives are
136 counted, not atapi-ide devices such as cdrom players and burners. Also, the
137 same construct is used with SCSI drives. (Normally they get higher numbers
138 than IDE drives except when the BIOS is configured to boot from SCSI devices.)
139 When you ask the BIOS to boot from a different hard disk (for instance your
140 primary slave), <e>that</e> harddisk is seen as <path>hd0</path>.
141 </p>
142
143 <p>
144 Assuming you have a hard drive on <path>/dev/sda</path> and two more on
145 <path>/dev/sdb</path> and <path>/dev/sdc</path>, <path>/dev/sdb7</path> gets
146 translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is
147 indeed, but as we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes
148 handy for those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a
149 little lost in the GRUB numbering scheme.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 Having gotten the feel for that, it is time to install GRUB.
154 </p>
155
156 </body>
157 </subsection>
158 <subsection>
159 <title>Installing GRUB</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <p>
163 To install GRUB, let's first emerge it:
164 </p>
165
166 <impo test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
167 If you are using a non-multilib <uri
168 link="?part=1&amp;chap=6#doc_chap2">profile</uri>, you should <b>not</b> emerge
169 <c>grub</c>, but instead you should emerge <c>grub-static</c>. If you plan to
170 use a non-multilib profile <e>and</e> you have <b>disabled</b> IA-32 emulation
171 in your kernel, then you should use <c>lilo</c>.
172 </impo>
173
174 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
175 # <i>emerge grub</i>
176 </pre>
177
178 <p>
179 Although GRUB is now installed, we still need to write up a
180 configuration file for it and place GRUB in our MBR so that GRUB automatically
181 boots your newly created kernel. Create <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> with
182 <c>nano</c> (or, if applicable, another editor):
183 </p>
184
185 <pre caption="Creating /boot/grub/grub.conf">
186 # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
187 </pre>
188
189 <p>
190 Now we are going to write up a <path>grub.conf</path>. Make
191 sure you use <e>your</e> kernel image filename and, if appropriate, <e>your</e>
192 initrd image filename.
193 </p>
194
195 <note>
196 Grub assigns device designations from the BIOS. If you change your BIOS
197 settings, your device letters and numbers may change, too. For example, if you
198 change your device boot order, you may need to change your grub configuration.
199 </note>
200
201 <note>
202 If your root filesystem is JFS, you <e>must</e> add " ro" to the <c>kernel</c>
203 line since JFS needs to replay its log before it allows read-write mounting.
204 </note>
205
206 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
207 <comment># Which listing to boot as default. 0 is the first, 1 the second etc.</comment>
208 default 0
209 <comment># How many seconds to wait before the default listing is booted.</comment>
210 timeout 30
211 <comment># Nice, fat splash-image to spice things up :)
212 # Comment out if you don't have a graphics card installed</comment>
213 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
214
215 title Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/>
216 <comment># Partition where the kernel image (or operating system) is located</comment>
217 root (hd0,0)
218 kernel /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/> root=/dev/sda3
219
220 title Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/> (rescue)
221 <comment># Partition where the kernel image (or operating system) is located</comment>
222 root (hd0,0)
223 kernel /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/> root=/dev/sda3 init=/bin/bb
224
225 <comment># The next four lines are only if you dualboot with a Windows system.</comment>
226 <comment># In this case, Windows is hosted on /dev/sda6.</comment>
227 title Windows XP
228 rootnoverify (hd0,5)
229 makeactive
230 chainloader +1
231 </pre>
232
233 <p>
234 If, while building the Linux kernel, you opted to include an initramfs to boot
235 from, then you will need to change the configuration by referring to this
236 initramfs file and telling the initramfs where your real root device is at:
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="GRUB snippet for initramfs-enabled kernel builds">
240 title Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/>
241 root (hd0,0)
242 kernel /boot/<keyval id="kernel-version"/> <i>real_</i>root=/dev/sda3
243 <i>initrd /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/></i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 If you used a different partitioning scheme and/or kernel image, adjust
248 accordingly. However, make sure that anything that follows a GRUB-device (such
249 as <path>(hd0,0)</path>) is relative to the mountpoint, not the root. In other
250 words, <path>(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz</path> is in reality
251 <path>/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz</path> since <path>(hd0,0)</path> is
252 <path>/boot</path>.
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 Besides, if you chose to use a different partitioning scheme and did not put
257 <path>/boot</path> in a separate partition, the <path>/boot</path> prefix used
258 in the above code samples is really <e>required</e>. If you followed our
259 suggested partitioning plan, the <path>/boot</path> prefix it not required, but
260 a <path>boot</path> symlink makes it work. In short, the above examples should
261 work whether you defined a separate <path>/boot</path> partition or not.
262 </p>
263
264 <p>
265 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to the
266 end of the kernel command. We're already passing one option
267 (<c>root=/dev/sda3</c> or <c>real_root=/dev/sda3</c>), but you can pass others
268 as well, such as the <c>video</c> statement for framebuffer as we discussed
269 previously.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 If your bootloader configuration file contains the real_root parameter, use the
274 real_rootflags parameter to set root filesystem mount options.
275 </p>
276
277 <p>
278 If you're using a 2.6.7 or higher kernel and you jumpered your harddrive
279 because the BIOS can't handle large harddrives you'll need to append
280 <c>sda=stroke</c>. Replace sda with the device that requires this option.
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 <c>genkernel</c> users should know that their kernels use the same boot options
285 as is used for the Installation CD. For instance, if you have SCSI devices, you
286 should add <c>doscsi</c> as kernel option.
287 </p>
288
289 <p>
290 Now save the <path>grub.conf</path> file and exit. You still need to install
291 GRUB in the MBR (Master Boot Record) so that GRUB is automatically executed when
292 you boot your system.
293 </p>
294
295 <p>
296 The GRUB developers recommend the use of <c>grub-install</c>. However, if for
297 some reason <c>grub-install</c> fails to work correctly you still have the
298 option to manually install GRUB.
299 </p>
300
301 <p>
302 Continue with <uri link="#grub-install-auto">Default: Setting up GRUB using
303 grub-install</uri> or <uri link="#grub-install-manual">Alternative: Setting up
304 GRUB using manual instructions</uri>.
305 </p>
306
307 </body>
308 </subsection>
309 <subsection id="grub-install-auto">
310 <title>Default: Setting up GRUB using grub-install</title>
311 <body>
312
313 <p>
314 To install GRUB you will need to issue the <c>grub-install</c> command.
315 However, <c>grub-install</c> won't work off-the-shelf since we are inside a
316 chrooted environment. We need to create <path>/etc/mtab</path> which lists all
317 mounted filesystems. Fortunately, there is an easy way to accomplish this -
318 just copy over <path>/proc/mounts</path> to <path>/etc/mtab</path>, excluding
319 the <c>rootfs</c> line if you haven't created a separate boot partition. The
320 following command will work in both cases:
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="Creating /etc/mtab">
324 # <i>grep -v rootfs /proc/mounts &gt; /etc/mtab</i>
325 </pre>
326
327 <p>
328 Now we can install GRUB using <c>grub-install</c>:
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Running grub-install">
332 # <i>grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <p>
336 If you have more questions regarding GRUB, please consult the <uri
337 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-faq.html">GRUB FAQ</uri>, the <uri
338 link="http://grub.enbug.org/GrubLegacy">GRUB Wiki</uri>, or read <c>info
339 grub</c> in your terminal.
340 </p>
341
342 <p>
343 Continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
344 </p>
345
346 </body>
347 </subsection>
348 <subsection id="grub-install-manual">
349 <title>Alternative: Setting up GRUB using manual instructions</title>
350 <body>
351
352 <p>
353 To start configuring GRUB, you type in <c>grub</c>. You'll be presented
354 with the <path>grub&gt;</path> grub command-line prompt. Now, you need to type
355 in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive.
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="Starting the GRUB shell">
359 # <i>grub --no-floppy</i>
360 </pre>
361
362 <note>
363 If your system does not have any floppy drives, add the <c>--no-floppy</c>
364 option to the above command to prevent grub from probing the (non-existing)
365 floppy drives.
366 </note>
367
368 <p>
369 In the example configuration we want to install GRUB so that it reads its
370 information from the boot partition <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path>, and
371 installs the GRUB boot record on the hard drive's MBR (master boot record) so
372 that the first thing we see when we turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. Of
373 course, if you haven't followed the example configuration during the
374 installation, change the commands accordingly.
375 </p>
376
377 <p>
378 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB.
379 For instance, if you type in "<c>root (</c>" followed by a TAB, you will
380 be presented with a list of devices (such as <path>hd0</path>). If you
381 type in "<c>root (hd0,</c>" followed by a TAB, you will receive a list
382 of available partitions to choose from (such as <path>hd0,0</path>).
383 </p>
384
385 <p>
386 By using the tab completion, setting up GRUB should be not that hard.
387 Now go on, configure GRUB, shall we? :-)
388 </p>
389
390 <pre caption="Installing GRUB in the MBR">
391 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Specify where your /boot partition resides)</comment>
392 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Install GRUB in the MBR)</comment>
393 grub&gt; <i>quit</i> <comment>(Exit the GRUB shell)</comment>
394 </pre>
395
396 <note>
397 If you want to install GRUB in a certain partition instead of the MBR,
398 you have to alter the <c>setup</c> command so it points to the right
399 partition. For instance, if you want GRUB installed in
400 <path>/dev/sda3</path>, then the command becomes <c>setup (hd0,2)</c>.
401 Few users however want to do this.
402 </note>
403
404 <p>
405 If you have more questions regarding GRUB, please consult the <uri
406 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-faq.html">GRUB FAQ</uri>, the <uri
407 link="http://grub.enbug.org/GrubLegacy">GRUB Wiki</uri>, or read <c>info
408 grub</c> in your terminal.
409 </p>
410
411 <p>
412 Continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
413 </p>
414
415 </body>
416 </subsection>
417 </section>
418 <section id="lilo" test="contains('AMD64 x86', func:keyval('arch'))">
419 <title>Alternative: Using LILO</title>
420 <subsection>
421 <title>Installing LILO</title>
422 <body>
423
424 <p>
425 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
426 bootloaders. However, it lacks some features that GRUB has (which is
427 also the reason why GRUB is currently gaining popularity). The reason
428 why LILO is still used is that, on some systems, GRUB doesn't work and
429 LILO does. Of course, it is also used because some people know LILO and
430 want to stick with it. Either way, Gentoo supports both, and apparently
431 you have chosen to use LILO.
432 </p>
433
434 <p>
435 Installing LILO is a breeze; just use <c>emerge</c>.
436 </p>
437
438 <pre caption="Installing LILO">
439 # <i>emerge lilo</i>
440 </pre>
441
442 </body>
443 </subsection>
444 <subsection>
445 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
446 <body>
447
448 <p>
449 To configure LILO, you must create <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>. Fire up
450 your favorite editor (in this handbook we use <c>nano</c> for
451 consistency) and create the file.
452 </p>
453
454 <pre caption="Creating /etc/lilo.conf">
455 # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
456 </pre>
457
458 <p>
459 Some sections ago we have asked you to remember the kernel-image name
460 you have created. In the next example <path>lilo.conf</path> we use the
461 example partitioning scheme.
462 </p>
463
464 <p>
465 Make sure you use <e>your</e> kernel image filename and, if appropriate,
466 <e>your</e> initrd image filename.
467 </p>
468
469 <note>
470 If your root filesystem is JFS, you <e>must</e> add a <c>append="ro"</c>
471 line after each boot item since JFS needs to replay its log before it allows
472 read-write mounting.
473 </note>
474
475 <pre caption="Example /etc/lilo.conf">
476 boot=/dev/sda <comment># Install LILO in the MBR</comment>
477 prompt <comment># Give the user the chance to select another section</comment>
478 timeout=50 <comment># Wait 5 (five) seconds before booting the default section</comment>
479 default=gentoo <comment># When the timeout has passed, boot the "gentoo" section</comment>
480
481 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
482 label=gentoo <comment># Name we give to this section</comment>
483 read-only <comment># Start with a read-only root. Do not alter!</comment>
484 root=/dev/sda3 <comment># Location of the root filesystem</comment>
485
486 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
487 label=gentoo.rescue <comment># Name we give to this section</comment>
488 read-only <comment># Start with a read-only root. Do not alter!</comment>
489 root=/dev/sda3 <comment># Location of the root filesystem</comment>
490 append="init=/bin/bb" <comment># Launch the Gentoo static rescue shell</comment>
491
492 <comment># The next two lines are only if you dualboot with a Windows system.</comment>
493 <comment># In this case, Windows is hosted on /dev/sda6.</comment>
494 other=/dev/sda6
495 label=windows
496 </pre>
497
498 <note>
499 If you use a different partitioning scheme and/or kernel image, adjust
500 accordingly.
501 </note>
502
503 <p>
504 If, while building the Linux kernel, you opted to include an initramfs to boot
505 from, then you will need to change the configuration by referring to this
506 initramfs file and telling the initramfs where your real root device is at:
507 </p>
508
509 <pre caption="LILO snippet for initramfs-enabled kernel builds">
510 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
511 label=gentoo
512 read-only
513 <i>append="real_root=/dev/sda3"</i>
514 <i>initrd=/boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd" /></i>
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, add an
519 <c>append</c> statement to the section. As an example, we add the
520 <c>video</c> statement to enable framebuffer:
521 </p>
522
523 <pre caption="Using append to add kernel options">
524 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
525 label=gentoo
526 read-only
527 root=/dev/sda3
528 <i>append="video=uvesafb:mtrr,ywrap,1024x768-32@85"</i>
529 </pre>
530
531 <p>
532 If you're using a 2.6.7 or higher kernel and you jumpered your harddrive
533 because the BIOS can't handle large harddrives you'll need to append
534 <c>sda=stroke</c>. Replace sda with the device that requires this option.
535 </p>
536
537 <p>
538 <c>genkernel</c> users should know that their kernels use the same boot options
539 as is used for the Installation CD. For instance, if you have SCSI devices, you
540 should add <c>doscsi</c> as kernel option.
541 </p>
542
543 <p>
544 Now save the file and exit. To finish up, you have to run <c>/sbin/lilo</c> so
545 LILO can apply the <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> to your system (i.e. install
546 itself on the disk). Keep in mind that you'll also have to run
547 <c>/sbin/lilo</c> every time you install a new kernel or make any changes to
548 the menu.
549 </p>
550
551 <pre caption="Finishing the LILO installation">
552 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
553 </pre>
554
555 <p>
556 If you have more questions regarding LILO, please consult its <uri
557 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LILO_(boot_loader)">wikipedia page</uri>.
558 </p>
559
560 <p>
561 You can now continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
562 </p>
563
564 </body>
565 </subsection>
566 </section>
567 <section id="elilo" test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
568 <title>Default: Installing elilo</title>
569 <body>
570
571 <p>
572 On the IA64 platform, the boot loader is called <c>elilo</c>. You may need to
573 emerge it on your machine first.
574 </p>
575
576 <pre caption="Installing elilo">
577 # <i>emerge elilo</i>
578 </pre>
579
580 <p>
581 You can find the configuration file at <path>/etc/elilo.conf</path> and a
582 sample file in the typical docs dir
583 <path>/usr/share/doc/elilo-&lt;ver&gt;/</path>. Here is another sample
584 configuration:
585 </p>
586
587 <pre caption="/etc/elilo.conf example">
588 boot=/dev/sda1
589 delay=30
590 timeout=50
591 default=Gentoo
592 append="console=ttyS0,9600"
593 prompt
594
595 image=/vmlinuz
596 label=Gentoo
597 root=/dev/sda2
598 read-only
599
600 image=/vmlinuz.old
601 label=Gentoo.old
602 root=/dev/sda2
603 read-only
604 </pre>
605
606 <p>
607 The <c>boot</c> line tells elilo the location of the boot partition (in this
608 case, <path>/dev/sda1</path>). The <c>delay</c> line sets the number of
609 10<sup>th</sup> of seconds before automatically booting the default when in
610 non-interactive mode. The <c>timeout</c> line is just like the delay line but
611 for interactive mode. The <c>default</c> line sets the default kernel entry
612 (which is defined below). The <c>append</c> line adds extra options to the
613 kernel command line. The <c>prompt</c> sets the default elilo behavior to
614 interactive.
615 </p>
616
617 <p>
618 The sections that start with <c>image</c> define different bootable images.
619 Each image has a nice <c>label</c>, a <c>root</c> filesystem, and will only
620 mount the root filesystem <c>read-only</c>.
621 </p>
622
623 <p>
624 If, while building the Linux kernel, you opted to include an initramfs to boot
625 from, then you will need to change the configuration by referring to this
626 initramfs file and telling the initramfs where your real root device is at:
627 </p>
628
629 <pre caption="ELILO snippet for initramfs-enabled kernel-builds">
630 image=/vmlinuz
631 label=Gentoo
632 <i>initrd=/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/></i>
633 <i>append = "initrd=<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/> real_root=/dev/sda2 console=ttyS0,9600"</i>
634 read-only
635 </pre>
636
637 <p>
638 When configuration is done, just run <c>elilo --efiboot</c>. The
639 <c>--efiboot</c> option adds a menu entry for Gentoo Linux to the EFI Boot
640 Manager.
641 </p>
642
643 <pre caption="Applying the elilo configuration">
644 # <i>elilo --efiboot</i>
645 </pre>
646
647 <p>
648 Now continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
649 </p>
650
651 </body>
652 </section>
653
654 <section id="reboot">
655 <title>Rebooting the System</title>
656 <subsection>
657 <body>
658
659 <p>
660 Exit the chrooted environment and unmount all mounted partitions. Then type in
661 that one magical command you have been waiting for: <c>reboot</c>.
662 </p>
663
664 <pre caption="Unmounting all partitions and rebooting" test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
665 # <i>exit</i>
666 cdimage ~# <i>cd</i>
667 cdimage ~# <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo/dev{/pts,/shm,}</i>
668 cdimage ~# <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo{/boot,/sys,/proc,}</i>
669 cdimage ~# <i>reboot</i>
670 </pre>
671
672 <pre caption="Unmounting all partitions and rebooting" test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
673 # <i>exit</i>
674 cdimage ~# <i>cd</i>
675 cdimage ~# <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo/dev{/shm,/pts,}</i>
676 cdimage ~# <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo{/boot,/proc,}</i>
677 cdimage ~# <i>reboot</i>
678 </pre>
679
680 <p>
681 Of course, don't forget to remove the bootable CD, otherwise the CD will be
682 booted again instead of your new Gentoo system.
683 </p>
684
685 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
686 When you reboot you should see a new Gentoo Linux menu option in the EFI Boot
687 Manager which will boot Gentoo.
688 </p>
689
690 <p>
691 Once rebooted in your Gentoo installation, finish up with <uri
692 link="?part=1&amp;chap=11">Finalizing your Gentoo Installation</uri>.
693 </p>
694
695 </body>
696 </subsection>
697 </section>
698 </sections>

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