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add an example grub boot line for launching the static rescue shell

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-bootloader.xml,v 1.3 2006/08/30 22:52:28 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>4.1</version>
12 <date>2006-09-21</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Making your Choice</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Now that your kernel is configured and compiled and the necessary system
22 configuration files are filled in correctly, it is time to install a
23 program that will fire up your kernel when you start the system. Such a
24 program is called a <e>bootloader</e>.
25 </p>
26
27 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
28 For x86, Gentoo Linux provides <uri
29 link="#grub">GRUB</uri> and <uri link="#lilo">LILO</uri>.
30 </p>
31
32 <p>
33 But before we install the bootloader, we inform you how to configure
34 framebuffer (assuming you want it of course). With framebuffer you can run the
35 Linux command line with (limited) graphical features (such as using the nice
36 bootsplash image Gentoo provides).
37 </p>
38
39 </body>
40 </subsection>
41 <subsection>
42 <title>Optional: Framebuffer</title>
43 <body>
44
45 <p>
46 <e>If</e> you have configured your kernel with framebuffer support (or you used
47 <c>genkernel</c> default kernel configuration), you can activate it by adding a
48 <c>vga</c> and/or a <c>video</c> statement to your bootloader configuration
49 file.
50 </p>
51
52 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
53 First of all, you need to know what type of framebuffer device you're using. If
54 you use a Gentoo patched kernel tree (such as <c>gentoo-sources</c>) you will
55 have had the possibility of selecting <c>vesafb-tng</c> as the <e>VESA driver
56 type</e> (which is default for these kernel sources). If this is the case, you
57 are using <c>vesafb-tng</c> and <e>do not need</e> to set a <c>vga</c>
58 statement. Otherwise you are using the <c>vesafb</c> driver and <e>need</e> to
59 set the <c>vga</c> statement.
60 </p>
61
62 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
63 64-bit systems must use the the <c>vesafb</c> driver, and need the <c>vga</c>
64 statement.
65 </p>
66
67 <p>
68 The <c>vga</c> statement controls the resolution and color depth of your
69 framebuffer screen for <c>vesafb</c>. As stated in
70 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/vesafb.txt</path> (which gets installed
71 when you install a kernel source package), you need to pass the VESA number
72 corresponding to the requested resolution and color depth to it.
73 </p>
74
75 <p>
76 The following table lists the available resolutions and color depths and
77 matches those against the value that you need to pass on to the <c>vga</c>
78 statement.
79 </p>
80
81 <table>
82 <tr>
83 <ti></ti>
84 <th>640x480</th>
85 <th>800x600</th>
86 <th>1024x768</th>
87 <th>1280x1024</th>
88 </tr>
89 <tr>
90 <th>256</th>
91 <ti>0x301</ti>
92 <ti>0x303</ti>
93 <ti>0x305</ti>
94 <ti>0x307</ti>
95 </tr>
96 <tr>
97 <th>32k</th>
98 <ti>0x310</ti>
99 <ti>0x313</ti>
100 <ti>0x316</ti>
101 <ti>0x319</ti>
102 </tr>
103 <tr>
104 <th>64k</th>
105 <ti>0x311</ti>
106 <ti>0x314</ti>
107 <ti>0x317</ti>
108 <ti>0x31A</ti>
109 </tr>
110 <tr>
111 <th>16M</th>
112 <ti>0x312</ti>
113 <ti>0x315</ti>
114 <ti>0x318</ti>
115 <ti>0x31B</ti>
116 </tr>
117 </table>
118
119 <p>
120 The <c>video</c> statement controls framebuffer display options. It needs to be
121 given the framebuffer driver (<c>vesafb</c> for 2.6 kernels, or <c>vesa</c> for
122 2.4 kernels) followed by the control statements you wish to enable. All
123 variables are listed in
124 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/vesafb.txt</path>. The most-used options
125 are:
126 </p>
127
128 <table>
129 <tr>
130 <th>Control</th>
131 <th>Description</th>
132 </tr>
133 <tr>
134 <ti>ywrap</ti>
135 <ti>
136 Assume that the graphical card can wrap around its memory (i.e. continue at
137 the beginning when it has approached the end)
138 </ti>
139 </tr>
140 <tr>
141 <ti>mtrr:n</ti>
142 <ti>
143 Setup MTRR registers. <c>n</c> can be:<br/>
144 0 - disabled<br/>
145 1 - uncachable<br/>
146 2 - write-back<br/>
147 3 - write-combining<br/>
148 4 - write-through
149 </ti>
150 </tr>
151 <tr test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
152 <ti><c>mode</c></ti>
153 <ti>
154 (<c>vesafb-tng</c> only)<br/>
155 Set up the resolution, color depth and refresh rate. For instance,
156 <c>1024x768-32@85</c> for a resolution of 1024x768, 32 bit color depth and a
157 refresh rate of 85 Hz.
158 </ti>
159 </tr>
160 </table>
161
162 </body>
163 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
164
165 <p>
166 The result of those two statements could be something like <c>vga=0x318
167 video=vesafb:mtrr:3,ywrap</c>. Write this setting down; you will need it
168 shortly.
169 </p>
170
171 <p>
172 While LILO does work on AMD64, Gentoo only supports using GRUB. Now continue by
173 its <uri link="#grub">installation</uri>.
174 </p>
175
176 </body>
177 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
178
179 <p>
180 The result of those two statements could be something like <c>vga=0x318
181 video=vesafb:mtrr:3,ywrap</c> or
182 <c>video=vesafb:mtrr:3,ywrap,1024x768-32@85</c>. Write this setting down; you
183 will need it shortly.
184 </p>
185
186 <p>
187 Now continue by installing <uri link="#grub">GRUB</uri> <e>or</e> <uri
188 link="#lilo">LILO</uri>.
189 </p>
190
191 </body>
192 </subsection>
193 </section>
194 <section id="grub">
195 <title>Default: Using GRUB</title>
196 <subsection>
197 <title>Understanding GRUB's terminology</title>
198 <body>
199
200 <p>
201 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
202 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
203 <path>/dev/hda1</path> (for IDE drives) or <path>/dev/sda1</path> (for
204 SATA/SCSI drives) will most likely be called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB.
205 Notice the parentheses around the <path>hd0,0</path> - they are required.
206 </p>
207
208 <p>
209 Hard drives count from zero rather than "a" and partitions start at zero
210 rather than one. Be aware too that with the hd devices, only hard drives are
211 counted, not atapi-ide devices such as cdrom players and burners. Also, the
212 same construct is used with SCSI drives. (Normally they get higher numbers
213 than IDE drives except when the BIOS is configured to boot from SCSI devices.)
214 When you ask the BIOS to boot from a different hard disk (for instance your
215 primary slave), <e>that</e> harddisk is seen as <path>hd0</path>.
216 </p>
217
218 <p>
219 Assuming you have a hard drive on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on
220 <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive
221 on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets
222 translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is
223 indeed, but as we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism
224 that comes handy for those of you having a lot of hard drives and
225 partitions and who are a little lost in the GRUB numbering scheme.
226 </p>
227
228 <p>
229 Having gotten the feel for that, it is time to install GRUB.
230 </p>
231
232 </body>
233 </subsection>
234 <subsection>
235 <title>Installing GRUB</title>
236 <body>
237
238 <p>
239 To install GRUB, let's first emerge it:
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
243 # <i>emerge grub</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 Although GRUB is now installed, we still need to write up a
248 configuration file for it and place GRUB in our MBR so that GRUB automatically
249 boots your newly created kernel. Create <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> with
250 <c>nano</c> (or, if applicable, another editor):
251 </p>
252
253 <pre caption="Creating /boot/grub/grub.conf">
254 # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
255 </pre>
256
257 <p>
258 Now we are going to write up a <path>grub.conf</path>. Below you'll find two
259 possible <path>grub.conf</path> for the partitioning example we use in this
260 guide. We've only extensively commented the first <path>grub.conf</path>. Make
261 sure you use <e>your</e> kernel image filename and, if appropriate, <e>your</e>
262 initrd image filename.
263 </p>
264
265 <ul>
266 <li>
267 The first <path>grub.conf</path> is for people who have not used
268 <c>genkernel</c> to build their kernel
269 </li>
270 <li>
271 The second <path>grub.conf</path> is for people who have used
272 <c>genkernel</c> to build their kernel
273 </li>
274 </ul>
275
276 <note>
277 If your root filesystem is JFS, you <e>must</e> add " ro" to the <c>kernel</c>
278 line since JFS needs to replay its log before it allows read-write mounting.
279 </note>
280
281 <pre caption="grub.conf for non-genkernel users">
282 <comment># Which listing to boot as default. 0 is the first, 1 the second etc.</comment>
283 default 0
284 <comment># How many seconds to wait before the default listing is booted.</comment>
285 timeout 30
286 <comment># Nice, fat splash-image to spice things up :)
287 # Comment out if you don't have a graphics card installed</comment>
288 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
289
290 title=Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/>
291 <comment># Partition where the kernel image (or operating system) is located</comment>
292 root (hd0,0)
293 kernel /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/> root=/dev/hda3
294
295 title=Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/> (rescue)
296 <comment># Partition where the kernel image (or operating system) is located</comment>
297 root (hd0,0)
298 kernel /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/> root=/dev/hda3 init=/bin/bb
299
300 <comment># The next four lines are only if you dualboot with a Windows system.</comment>
301 <comment># In this case, Windows is hosted on /dev/hda6.</comment>
302 title=Windows XP
303 rootnoverify (hd0,5)
304 makeactive
305 chainloader +1
306 </pre>
307
308 <pre caption="grub.conf for genkernel users">
309 default 0
310 timeout 30
311 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
312
313 title=Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/>
314 root (hd0,0)
315 kernel /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-name"/> root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/hda3 udev
316 initrd /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/>
317
318 <comment># Only in case you want to dual-boot</comment>
319 title=Windows XP
320 rootnoverify (hd0,5)
321 makeactive
322 chainloader +1
323 </pre>
324
325 <note>
326 The <c>udev</c> mentioned at the end of the kernel line is needed to work around
327 a bug in some genkernel versions <e>if</e> you use udev in the first place
328 (which is the default behaviour).
329 </note>
330
331 <p>
332 If you used a different partitioning scheme and/or kernel image, adjust
333 accordingly. However, make sure that anything that follows a GRUB-device (such
334 as <path>(hd0,0)</path>) is relative to the mountpoint, not the root. In other
335 words, <path>(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz</path> is in reality
336 <path>/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz</path> since <path>(hd0,0)</path> is
337 <path>/boot</path>.
338 </p>
339
340 <p>
341 Besides, if you chose to use a different partitioning scheme and did not put
342 <path>/boot</path> in a separate partition, the <path>/boot</path> prefix used
343 in the above code samples is really <e>required</e>. If you followed our
344 suggested partitioning plan, the <path>/boot</path> prefix it not required, but
345 a <path>boot</path> symlink makes it work. In short, the above examples should
346 work whether you defined a separate <path>/boot</path> partition or not.
347 </p>
348
349 <p>
350 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add
351 them to the end of the kernel command. We're already passing one option
352 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c> or <c>real_root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others
353 as well, such as the <c>video</c> and/or <c>vga</c> statements for framebuffer
354 as we discussed previously.
355 </p>
356
357 <p>
358 If you're using a 2.6.7 or higher kernel and you jumpered your harddrive
359 because the BIOS can't handle large harddrives you'll need to append
360 <c>hdx=stroke</c>.
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 <c>genkernel</c> users should know that their kernels use the same boot options
365 as is used for the Installation CD. For instance, if you have SCSI devices, you
366 should add <c>doscsi</c> as kernel option.
367 </p>
368
369 <p>
370 Now save the <path>grub.conf</path> file and exit. You still need to install
371 GRUB in the MBR (Master Boot Record) so that GRUB is automatically executed when
372 you boot your system.
373 </p>
374
375 <p>
376 The GRUB developers recommend the use of <c>grub-install</c>. However, if for
377 some reason <c>grub-install</c> fails to work correctly you still have the
378 option to manually install GRUB.
379 </p>
380
381 <p>
382 Continue with <uri link="#grub-install-auto">Default: Setting up GRUB using
383 grub-install</uri> or <uri link="#grub-install-manual">Alternative: Setting up
384 GRUB using manual instructions</uri>.
385 </p>
386
387 </body>
388 </subsection>
389 <subsection id="grub-install-auto">
390 <title>Default: Setting up GRUB using grub-install</title>
391 <body>
392
393 <p>
394 To install GRUB you will need to issue the <c>grub-install</c> command.
395 However, <c>grub-install</c> won't work off-the-shelf since we are inside a
396 chrooted environment. We need to create <path>/etc/mtab</path> which lists all
397 mounted filesystems. Fortunately, there is an easy way to accomplish this -
398 just copy over <path>/proc/mounts</path> to <path>/etc/mtab</path>, excluding
399 the <c>rootfs</c> line if you haven't created a separate boot partition. The
400 following command will work in both cases:
401 </p>
402
403 <pre caption="Creating /etc/mtab">
404 # <i>grep -v rootfs /proc/mounts &gt; /etc/mtab</i>
405 </pre>
406
407 <p>
408 Now we can install GRUB using <c>grub-install</c>:
409 </p>
410
411 <pre caption="Running grub-install">
412 # <i>grub-install /dev/hda</i>
413 </pre>
414
415 <p>
416 If you have more questions regarding GRUB, please consult the <uri
417 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-faq.html">GRUB FAQ</uri> or the
418 <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/">GRUB Manual</uri>.
419 </p>
420
421 <p>
422 Continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
423 </p>
424
425 </body>
426 </subsection>
427 <subsection id="grub-install-manual">
428 <title>Alternative: Setting up GRUB using manual instructions</title>
429 <body>
430
431 <p>
432 To start configuring GRUB, you type in <c>grub</c>. You'll be presented
433 with the <path>grub&gt;</path> grub command-line prompt. Now, you need to type
434 in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive.
435 </p>
436
437 <pre caption="Starting the GRUB shell">
438 # <i>grub</i>
439 </pre>
440
441 <note>
442 If your system does not have any floppy drives, add the <c>--no-floppy</c>
443 option to the above command to prevent grub from probing the (non-existing)
444 floppy drives.
445 </note>
446
447 <p>
448 In the example configuration we want to install GRUB so that it reads its
449 information from the boot partition <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path>, and
450 installs the GRUB boot record on the hard drive's MBR (master boot record) so
451 that the first thing we see when we turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. Of
452 course, if you haven't followed the example configuration during the
453 installation, change the commands accordingly.
454 </p>
455
456 <p>
457 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB.
458 For instance, if you type in "<c>root (</c>" followed by a TAB, you will
459 be presented with a list of devices (such as <path>hd0</path>). If you
460 type in "<c>root (hd0,</c>" followed by a TAB, you will receive a list
461 of available partitions to choose from (such as <path>hd0,0</path>).
462 </p>
463
464 <p>
465 By using the tab completion, setting up GRUB should be not that hard.
466 Now go on, configure GRUB, shall we? :-)
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption="Installing GRUB in the MBR">
470 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Specify where your /boot partition resides)</comment>
471 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Install GRUB in the MBR)</comment>
472 grub&gt; <i>quit</i> <comment>(Exit the GRUB shell)</comment>
473 </pre>
474
475 <note>
476 If you want to install GRUB in a certain partition instead of the MBR,
477 you have to alter the <c>setup</c> command so it points to the right
478 partition. For instance, if you want GRUB installed in
479 <path>/dev/hda3</path>, then the command becomes <c>setup (hd0,2)</c>.
480 Few users however want to do this.
481 </note>
482
483 <p>
484 If you have more questions regarding GRUB, please consult the <uri
485 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-faq.html">GRUB FAQ</uri> or the <uri
486 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/">GRUB Manual</uri>.
487 </p>
488
489 <p>
490 Continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
491 </p>
492
493 </body>
494 </subsection>
495 </section>
496 <section id="lilo" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
497 <title>Alternative: Using LILO</title>
498 <subsection>
499 <title>Installing LILO</title>
500 <body>
501
502 <p>
503 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
504 bootloaders. However, it lacks some features that GRUB has (which is
505 also the reason why GRUB is currently gaining popularity). The reason
506 why LILO is still used is that, on some systems, GRUB doesn't work and
507 LILO does. Of course, it is also used because some people know LILO and
508 want to stick with it. Either way, Gentoo supports both, and apparently
509 you have chosen to use LILO.
510 </p>
511
512 <p>
513 Installing LILO is a breeze; just use <c>emerge</c>.
514 </p>
515
516 <pre caption="Installing LILO">
517 # <i>emerge lilo</i>
518 </pre>
519
520 </body>
521 </subsection>
522 <subsection>
523 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
524 <body>
525
526 <p>
527 To configure LILO, you must create <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>. Fire up
528 your favorite editor (in this handbook we use <c>nano</c> for
529 consistency) and create the file.
530 </p>
531
532 <pre caption="Creating /etc/lilo.conf">
533 # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
534 </pre>
535
536 <p>
537 Some sections ago we have asked you to remember the kernel-image name
538 you have created. In the next example <path>lilo.conf</path> we use the
539 example partitioning scheme. There are two separate parts:
540 </p>
541
542 <ul>
543 <li>
544 One for those who have not used <c>genkernel</c> to build their kernel
545 </li>
546 <li>
547 One for those who have used <c>genkernel</c> to build their kernel
548 </li>
549 </ul>
550
551 <p>
552 Make sure you use <e>your</e> kernel image filename and, if appropriate,
553 <e>your</e> initrd image filename.
554 </p>
555
556 <note>
557 If your root filesystem is JFS, you <e>must</e> add a <c>append="ro"</c>
558 line after each boot item since JFS needs to replay its log before it allows
559 read-write mounting.
560 </note>
561
562 <pre caption="Example /etc/lilo.conf">
563 boot=/dev/hda <comment># Install LILO in the MBR</comment>
564 prompt <comment># Give the user the chance to select another section</comment>
565 timeout=50 <comment># Wait 5 (five) seconds before booting the default section</comment>
566 default=gentoo <comment># When the timeout has passed, boot the "gentoo" section</comment>
567
568 <comment># For non-genkernel users</comment>
569 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
570 label=gentoo <comment># Name we give to this section</comment>
571 read-only <comment># Start with a read-only root. Do not alter!</comment>
572 root=/dev/hda3 <comment># Location of the root filesystem</comment>
573
574 <comment># For genkernel users</comment>
575 image=/boot/<keyval id="genkernel-name"/>
576 label=gentoo
577 read-only
578 root=/dev/ram0
579 append="init=/linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/hda3 udev"
580 initrd=/boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/>
581
582 <comment># The next two lines are only if you dualboot with a Windows system.</comment>
583 <comment># In this case, Windows is hosted on /dev/hda6.</comment>
584 other=/dev/hda6
585 label=windows
586 </pre>
587
588 <note>
589 The <c>udev</c> mentioned at the end of the append line is needed to work around
590 a bug in some genkernel versions <e>if</e> you use udev in the first place
591 (which is the default behaviour).
592 </note>
593
594 <note>
595 If you use a different partitioning scheme and/or kernel image, adjust
596 accordingly.
597 </note>
598
599 <p>
600 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, add an
601 <c>append</c> statement to the section. As an example, we add the
602 <c>video</c> statement to enable framebuffer:
603 </p>
604
605 <pre caption="Using append to add kernel options">
606 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
607 label=gentoo
608 read-only
609 root=/dev/hda3
610 <i>append="video=vesafb:mtrr,ywrap,1024x768-32@85"</i>
611 </pre>
612
613 <p>
614 If you're using a 2.6.7 or higher kernel and you jumpered your harddrive
615 because the BIOS can't handle large harddrives you'll need to append
616 <c>hdx=stroke</c>.
617 </p>
618
619 <p>
620 <c>genkernel</c> users should know that their kernels use the same boot options
621 as is used for the Installation CD. For instance, if you have SCSI devices, you
622 should add <c>doscsi</c> as kernel option.
623 </p>
624
625 <p>
626 Now save the file and exit. To finish up, you have to run <c>/sbin/lilo</c> so
627 LILO can apply the <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> to your system (i.e. install
628 itself on the disk). Keep in mind that you'll also have to run
629 <c>/sbin/lilo</c> every time you install a new kernel or make any changes to
630 the menu.
631 </p>
632
633 <pre caption="Finishing the LILO installation">
634 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
635 </pre>
636
637 <p>
638 If you have more questions regarding LILO, please consult its <uri
639 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LILO_(boot_loader)">wikipedia page</uri>.
640 </p>
641
642 <p>
643 You can now continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
644 </p>
645
646 </body>
647 </subsection>
648 </section>
649 <section id="reboot">
650 <title>Rebooting the System</title>
651 <subsection>
652 <body>
653
654 <p>
655 Exit the chrooted environment and unmount all mounted partitions. Then type in
656 that one magical command you have been waiting for: <c>reboot</c>.
657 </p>
658
659 <pre caption="Unmounting all partitions and rebooting">
660 # <i>exit</i>
661 cdimage ~# <i>cd</i>
662 cdimage ~# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo/dev /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo</i>
663 cdimage ~# <i>reboot</i>
664 </pre>
665
666 <p>
667 Of course, don't forget to remove the bootable CD, otherwise the CD will be
668 booted again instead of your new Gentoo system.
669 </p>
670
671 <p>
672 Once rebooted in your Gentoo installation, finish up with <uri
673 link="?part=1&amp;chap=11">Finalizing your Gentoo Installation</uri>.
674 </p>
675
676 </body>
677 </subsection>
678 </section>
679 </sections>

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