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Fix bug #408691 - Update instructions with initramfs information, bug #406961 - update kernel configuration entries

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-bootloader.xml,v 1.23 2011/05/09 19:47:22 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8</version>
12 <date>2011-05-09</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Making your Choice</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Now that your kernel is configured and compiled and the necessary system
22 configuration files are filled in correctly, it is time to install a
23 program that will fire up your kernel when you start the system. Such a
24 program is called a <e>bootloader</e>.
25 </p>
26
27 </body>
28 <body test="contains('AMD64 x86', func:keyval('arch'))">
29 <p>
30 For <keyval id="arch"/>, Gentoo Linux provides <uri
31 link="#grub">GRUB</uri> and <uri link="#lilo">LILO</uri>.
32 </p>
33
34 </body>
35 <body>
36 <p>
37 But before we install the bootloader, we inform you how to configure
38 framebuffer (assuming you want it of course). With framebuffer you can run the
39 Linux command line with (limited) graphical features (such as using the nice
40 bootsplash image Gentoo provides).
41 </p>
42
43 </body>
44 </subsection>
45 <subsection>
46 <title>Optional: Framebuffer</title>
47 <body>
48
49 <p>
50 <e>If</e> you have configured your kernel with framebuffer support (or you used
51 <c>genkernel</c> default kernel configuration), you can activate it by adding a
52 a <c>video</c> statement to your bootloader configuration file.
53 </p>
54
55 <p>
56 First of all, you need to know your framebuffer device. You should have used
57 <c>uvesafb</c> as the <e>VESA driver</e>.
58 </p>
59
60 <p>
61 The <c>video</c> statement controls framebuffer display options. It needs to be
62 given the framebuffer driver followed by the control statements you wish to
63 enable. All variables are listed in
64 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/uvesafb.txt</path>. The most-used options
65 are:
66 </p>
67
68 <table>
69 <tr>
70 <th>Control</th>
71 <th>Description</th>
72 </tr>
73 <tr>
74 <ti>ywrap</ti>
75 <ti>
76 Assume that the graphical card can wrap around its memory (i.e. continue at
77 the beginning when it has approached the end)
78 </ti>
79 </tr>
80 <tr>
81 <ti>mtrr:<c>n</c></ti>
82 <ti>
83 Setup MTRR registers. <c>n</c> can be:<br/>
84 0 - disabled<br/>
85 1 - uncachable<br/>
86 2 - write-back<br/>
87 3 - write-combining<br/>
88 4 - write-through
89 </ti>
90 </tr>
91 <tr>
92 <ti><c>mode</c></ti>
93 <ti>
94 Set up the resolution, color depth and refresh rate. For instance,
95 <c>1024x768-32@85</c> for a resolution of 1024x768, 32 bit color depth and a
96 refresh rate of 85 Hz.
97 </ti>
98 </tr>
99 </table>
100
101 <p>
102 The result could be something like
103 <c>video=uvesafb:mtrr:3,ywrap,1024x768-32@85</c>. Write this setting down; you
104 will need it shortly.
105 </p>
106
107 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
108 Now, you should install the <uri link="#elilo">elilo bootloader</uri>.
109 </p>
110
111 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
112 Now continue by installing <uri link="#grub">GRUB</uri> <e>or</e> <uri
113 link="#lilo">LILO</uri>.
114 </p>
115
116 </body>
117 </subsection>
118 </section>
119 <section id="grub" test="contains('AMD64 x86',func:keyval('arch'))">
120 <title>Default: Using GRUB</title>
121 <subsection>
122 <title>Understanding GRUB's terminology</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <p>
126 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
127 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
128 <path>/dev/sda1</path> will most likely be called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under
129 GRUB. Notice the parentheses around the <path>hd0,0</path> - they are
130 required.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 Hard drives count from zero rather than "a" and partitions start at zero
135 rather than one. Be aware too that with the hd devices, only hard drives are
136 counted, not atapi-ide devices such as cdrom players and burners. Also, the
137 same construct is used with SCSI drives. (Normally they get higher numbers
138 than IDE drives except when the BIOS is configured to boot from SCSI devices.)
139 When you ask the BIOS to boot from a different hard disk (for instance your
140 primary slave), <e>that</e> harddisk is seen as <path>hd0</path>.
141 </p>
142
143 <p>
144 Assuming you have a hard drive on <path>/dev/sda</path> and two more on
145 <path>/dev/sdb</path> and <path>/dev/sdc</path>, <path>/dev/sdb7</path> gets
146 translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is
147 indeed, but as we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes
148 handy for those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a
149 little lost in the GRUB numbering scheme.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 Having gotten the feel for that, it is time to install GRUB.
154 </p>
155
156 </body>
157 </subsection>
158 <subsection>
159 <title>Installing GRUB</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <p>
163 To install GRUB, let's first emerge it:
164 </p>
165
166 <impo test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
167 If you are using a non-multilib <uri
168 link="?part=1&amp;chap=6#doc_chap2">profile</uri>, you should <b>not</b> emerge
169 <c>grub</c>, but instead you should emerge <c>grub-static</c>. If you plan to
170 use a non-multilib profile <e>and</e> you have <b>disabled</b> IA-32 emulation
171 in your kernel, then you should use <c>lilo</c>.
172 </impo>
173
174 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
175 # <i>emerge grub</i>
176 </pre>
177
178 <p>
179 Although GRUB is now installed, we still need to write up a
180 configuration file for it and place GRUB in our MBR so that GRUB automatically
181 boots your newly created kernel. Create <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> with
182 <c>nano</c> (or, if applicable, another editor):
183 </p>
184
185 <pre caption="Creating /boot/grub/grub.conf">
186 # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
187 </pre>
188
189 <p>
190 Now we are going to write up a <path>grub.conf</path>. Make
191 sure you use <e>your</e> kernel image filename and, if appropriate, <e>your</e>
192 initrd image filename.
193 </p>
194
195 <note>
196 Grub assigns device designations from the BIOS. If you change your BIOS
197 settings, your device letters and numbers may change, too. For example, if you
198 change your device boot order, you may need to change your grub configuration.
199 </note>
200
201 <note>
202 If your root filesystem is JFS, you <e>must</e> add " ro" to the <c>kernel</c>
203 line since JFS needs to replay its log before it allows read-write mounting.
204 </note>
205
206 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
207 <comment># Which listing to boot as default. 0 is the first, 1 the second etc.</comment>
208 default 0
209 <comment># How many seconds to wait before the default listing is booted.</comment>
210 timeout 30
211 <comment># Nice, fat splash-image to spice things up :)
212 # Comment out if you don't have a graphics card installed</comment>
213 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
214
215 title Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/>
216 <comment># Partition where the kernel image (or operating system) is located</comment>
217 root (hd0,0)
218 kernel /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/> root=/dev/sda3
219
220 title Gentoo Linux <keyval id="kernel-version"/> (rescue)
221 <comment># Partition where the kernel image (or operating system) is located</comment>
222 root (hd0,0)
223 kernel /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/> root=/dev/sda3 init=/bin/bb
224 <comment># The initrd line is needed when you have built an initramfs (or used genkernel)</comment>
225 initrd /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/>
226
227 <comment># The next four lines are only if you dualboot with a Windows system.</comment>
228 <comment># In this case, Windows is hosted on /dev/sda6.</comment>
229 title Windows XP
230 rootnoverify (hd0,5)
231 makeactive
232 chainloader +1
233 </pre>
234
235 <p>
236 If you used a different partitioning scheme and/or kernel image, adjust
237 accordingly. However, make sure that anything that follows a GRUB-device (such
238 as <path>(hd0,0)</path>) is relative to the mountpoint, not the root. In other
239 words, <path>(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz</path> is in reality
240 <path>/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz</path> since <path>(hd0,0)</path> is
241 <path>/boot</path>.
242 </p>
243
244 <p>
245 Besides, if you chose to use a different partitioning scheme and did not put
246 <path>/boot</path> in a separate partition, the <path>/boot</path> prefix used
247 in the above code samples is really <e>required</e>. If you followed our
248 suggested partitioning plan, the <path>/boot</path> prefix it not required, but
249 a <path>boot</path> symlink makes it work. In short, the above examples should
250 work whether you defined a separate <path>/boot</path> partition or not.
251 </p>
252
253 <p>
254 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to the
255 end of the kernel command. We're already passing one option
256 (<c>root=/dev/sda3</c> or <c>real_root=/dev/sda3</c>), but you can pass others
257 as well, such as the <c>video</c> statement for framebuffer as we discussed
258 previously.
259 </p>
260
261 <p>
262 If your bootloader configuration file contains the real_root parameter, use the
263 real_rootflags parameter to set root filesystem mount options.
264 </p>
265
266 <p>
267 If you're using a 2.6.7 or higher kernel and you jumpered your harddrive
268 because the BIOS can't handle large harddrives you'll need to append
269 <c>sda=stroke</c>. Replace sda with the device that requires this option.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 <c>genkernel</c> users should know that their kernels use the same boot options
274 as is used for the Installation CD. For instance, if you have SCSI devices, you
275 should add <c>doscsi</c> as kernel option.
276 </p>
277
278 <p>
279 Now save the <path>grub.conf</path> file and exit. You still need to install
280 GRUB in the MBR (Master Boot Record) so that GRUB is automatically executed when
281 you boot your system.
282 </p>
283
284 <p>
285 The GRUB developers recommend the use of <c>grub-install</c>. However, if for
286 some reason <c>grub-install</c> fails to work correctly you still have the
287 option to manually install GRUB.
288 </p>
289
290 <p>
291 Continue with <uri link="#grub-install-auto">Default: Setting up GRUB using
292 grub-install</uri> or <uri link="#grub-install-manual">Alternative: Setting up
293 GRUB using manual instructions</uri>.
294 </p>
295
296 </body>
297 </subsection>
298 <subsection id="grub-install-auto">
299 <title>Default: Setting up GRUB using grub-install</title>
300 <body>
301
302 <p>
303 To install GRUB you will need to issue the <c>grub-install</c> command.
304 However, <c>grub-install</c> won't work off-the-shelf since we are inside a
305 chrooted environment. We need to create <path>/etc/mtab</path> which lists all
306 mounted filesystems. Fortunately, there is an easy way to accomplish this -
307 just copy over <path>/proc/mounts</path> to <path>/etc/mtab</path>, excluding
308 the <c>rootfs</c> line if you haven't created a separate boot partition. The
309 following command will work in both cases:
310 </p>
311
312 <pre caption="Creating /etc/mtab">
313 # <i>grep -v rootfs /proc/mounts &gt; /etc/mtab</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 <p>
317 Now we can install GRUB using <c>grub-install</c>:
318 </p>
319
320 <pre caption="Running grub-install">
321 # <i>grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 If you have more questions regarding GRUB, please consult the <uri
326 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-faq.html">GRUB FAQ</uri>, the <uri
327 link="http://grub.enbug.org/GrubLegacy">GRUB Wiki</uri>, or read <c>info
328 grub</c> in your terminal.
329 </p>
330
331 <p>
332 Continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
333 </p>
334
335 </body>
336 </subsection>
337 <subsection id="grub-install-manual">
338 <title>Alternative: Setting up GRUB using manual instructions</title>
339 <body>
340
341 <p>
342 To start configuring GRUB, you type in <c>grub</c>. You'll be presented
343 with the <path>grub&gt;</path> grub command-line prompt. Now, you need to type
344 in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive.
345 </p>
346
347 <pre caption="Starting the GRUB shell">
348 # <i>grub --no-floppy</i>
349 </pre>
350
351 <note>
352 If your system does not have any floppy drives, add the <c>--no-floppy</c>
353 option to the above command to prevent grub from probing the (non-existing)
354 floppy drives.
355 </note>
356
357 <p>
358 In the example configuration we want to install GRUB so that it reads its
359 information from the boot partition <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path>, and
360 installs the GRUB boot record on the hard drive's MBR (master boot record) so
361 that the first thing we see when we turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. Of
362 course, if you haven't followed the example configuration during the
363 installation, change the commands accordingly.
364 </p>
365
366 <p>
367 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB.
368 For instance, if you type in "<c>root (</c>" followed by a TAB, you will
369 be presented with a list of devices (such as <path>hd0</path>). If you
370 type in "<c>root (hd0,</c>" followed by a TAB, you will receive a list
371 of available partitions to choose from (such as <path>hd0,0</path>).
372 </p>
373
374 <p>
375 By using the tab completion, setting up GRUB should be not that hard.
376 Now go on, configure GRUB, shall we? :-)
377 </p>
378
379 <pre caption="Installing GRUB in the MBR">
380 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Specify where your /boot partition resides)</comment>
381 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Install GRUB in the MBR)</comment>
382 grub&gt; <i>quit</i> <comment>(Exit the GRUB shell)</comment>
383 </pre>
384
385 <note>
386 If you want to install GRUB in a certain partition instead of the MBR,
387 you have to alter the <c>setup</c> command so it points to the right
388 partition. For instance, if you want GRUB installed in
389 <path>/dev/sda3</path>, then the command becomes <c>setup (hd0,2)</c>.
390 Few users however want to do this.
391 </note>
392
393 <p>
394 If you have more questions regarding GRUB, please consult the <uri
395 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-faq.html">GRUB FAQ</uri>, the <uri
396 link="http://grub.enbug.org/GrubLegacy">GRUB Wiki</uri>, or read <c>info
397 grub</c> in your terminal.
398 </p>
399
400 <p>
401 Continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
402 </p>
403
404 </body>
405 </subsection>
406 </section>
407 <section id="lilo" test="contains('AMD64 x86', func:keyval('arch'))">
408 <title>Alternative: Using LILO</title>
409 <subsection>
410 <title>Installing LILO</title>
411 <body>
412
413 <p>
414 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
415 bootloaders. However, it lacks some features that GRUB has (which is
416 also the reason why GRUB is currently gaining popularity). The reason
417 why LILO is still used is that, on some systems, GRUB doesn't work and
418 LILO does. Of course, it is also used because some people know LILO and
419 want to stick with it. Either way, Gentoo supports both, and apparently
420 you have chosen to use LILO.
421 </p>
422
423 <p>
424 Installing LILO is a breeze; just use <c>emerge</c>.
425 </p>
426
427 <pre caption="Installing LILO">
428 # <i>emerge lilo</i>
429 </pre>
430
431 </body>
432 </subsection>
433 <subsection>
434 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
435 <body>
436
437 <p>
438 To configure LILO, you must create <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>. Fire up
439 your favorite editor (in this handbook we use <c>nano</c> for
440 consistency) and create the file.
441 </p>
442
443 <pre caption="Creating /etc/lilo.conf">
444 # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
445 </pre>
446
447 <p>
448 Some sections ago we have asked you to remember the kernel-image name
449 you have created. In the next example <path>lilo.conf</path> we use the
450 example partitioning scheme.
451 </p>
452
453 <p>
454 Make sure you use <e>your</e> kernel image filename and, if appropriate,
455 <e>your</e> initrd image filename.
456 </p>
457
458 <note>
459 If your root filesystem is JFS, you <e>must</e> add a <c>append="ro"</c>
460 line after each boot item since JFS needs to replay its log before it allows
461 read-write mounting.
462 </note>
463
464 <pre caption="Example /etc/lilo.conf">
465 boot=/dev/sda <comment># Install LILO in the MBR</comment>
466 prompt <comment># Give the user the chance to select another section</comment>
467 timeout=50 <comment># Wait 5 (five) seconds before booting the default section</comment>
468 default=gentoo <comment># When the timeout has passed, boot the "gentoo" section</comment>
469
470 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
471 label=gentoo <comment># Name we give to this section</comment>
472 read-only <comment># Start with a read-only root. Do not alter!</comment>
473 root=/dev/sda3 <comment># Location of the root filesystem</comment>
474 <comment># The initrd line is only needed if you built an initramfs (or used genkernel)</comment>
475 initrd=/boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/>
476
477 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
478 label=gentoo.rescue <comment># Name we give to this section</comment>
479 read-only <comment># Start with a read-only root. Do not alter!</comment>
480 root=/dev/sda3 <comment># Location of the root filesystem</comment>
481 append="init=/bin/bb" <comment># Launch the Gentoo static rescue shell</comment>
482
483 <comment># The next two lines are only if you dualboot with a Windows system.</comment>
484 <comment># In this case, Windows is hosted on /dev/sda6.</comment>
485 other=/dev/sda6
486 label=windows
487 </pre>
488
489 <note>
490 If you use a different partitioning scheme and/or kernel image, adjust
491 accordingly.
492 </note>
493
494 <p>
495 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, add an
496 <c>append</c> statement to the section. As an example, we add the
497 <c>video</c> statement to enable framebuffer:
498 </p>
499
500 <pre caption="Using append to add kernel options">
501 image=/boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/>
502 label=gentoo
503 read-only
504 root=/dev/sda3
505 <i>append="video=uvesafb:mtrr,ywrap,1024x768-32@85"</i>
506 </pre>
507
508 <p>
509 If you're using a 2.6.7 or higher kernel and you jumpered your harddrive
510 because the BIOS can't handle large harddrives you'll need to append
511 <c>sda=stroke</c>. Replace sda with the device that requires this option.
512 </p>
513
514 <p>
515 <c>genkernel</c> users should know that their kernels use the same boot options
516 as is used for the Installation CD. For instance, if you have SCSI devices, you
517 should add <c>doscsi</c> as kernel option.
518 </p>
519
520 <p>
521 Now save the file and exit. To finish up, you have to run <c>/sbin/lilo</c> so
522 LILO can apply the <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> to your system (i.e. install
523 itself on the disk). Keep in mind that you'll also have to run
524 <c>/sbin/lilo</c> every time you install a new kernel or make any changes to
525 the menu.
526 </p>
527
528 <pre caption="Finishing the LILO installation">
529 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
530 </pre>
531
532 <p>
533 If you have more questions regarding LILO, please consult its <uri
534 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LILO_(boot_loader)">wikipedia page</uri>.
535 </p>
536
537 <p>
538 You can now continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
539 </p>
540
541 </body>
542 </subsection>
543 </section>
544 <section id="elilo" test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
545 <title>Default: Installing elilo</title>
546 <body>
547
548 <p>
549 On the IA64 platform, the boot loader is called <c>elilo</c>. You may need to
550 emerge it on your machine first.
551 </p>
552
553 <pre caption="Installing elilo">
554 # <i>emerge elilo</i>
555 </pre>
556
557 <p>
558 You can find the configuration file at <path>/etc/elilo.conf</path> and a
559 sample file in the typical docs dir
560 <path>/usr/share/doc/elilo-&lt;ver&gt;/</path>. Here is another sample
561 configuration:
562 </p>
563
564 <pre caption="/etc/elilo.conf example">
565 boot=/dev/sda1
566 delay=30
567 timeout=50
568 default=Gentoo
569 append="console=ttyS0,9600"
570 prompt
571
572 image=/vmlinuz
573 label=Gentoo
574 root=/dev/sda2
575 read-only
576
577 image=/vmlinuz.old
578 label=Gentoo.old
579 root=/dev/sda2
580 read-only
581 </pre>
582
583 <p>
584 The <c>boot</c> line tells elilo the location of the boot partition (in this
585 case, <path>/dev/sda1</path>). The <c>delay</c> line sets the number of
586 10<sup>th</sup> of seconds before automatically booting the default when in
587 non-interactive mode. The <c>timeout</c> line is just like the delay line but
588 for interactive mode. The <c>default</c> line sets the default kernel entry
589 (which is defined below). The <c>append</c> line adds extra options to the
590 kernel command line. The <c>prompt</c> sets the default elilo behavior to
591 interactive.
592 </p>
593
594 <p>
595 The sections that start with <c>image</c> define different bootable images.
596 Each image has a nice <c>label</c>, a <c>root</c> filesystem, and will only
597 mount the root filesystem <c>read-only</c>.
598 </p>
599
600 <p>
601 When configuration is done, just run <c>elilo --efiboot</c>. The
602 <c>--efiboot</c> option adds a menu entry for Gentoo Linux to the EFI Boot
603 Manager.
604 </p>
605
606 <pre caption="Applying the elilo configuration">
607 # <i>elilo --efiboot</i>
608 </pre>
609
610 <p>
611 Now continue with <uri link="#reboot">Rebooting the System</uri>.
612 </p>
613
614 </body>
615 </section>
616
617 <section id="reboot">
618 <title>Rebooting the System</title>
619 <subsection>
620 <body>
621
622 <p>
623 Exit the chrooted environment and unmount all mounted partitions. Then type in
624 that one magical command you have been waiting for: <c>reboot</c>.
625 </p>
626
627 <pre caption="Unmounting all partitions and rebooting" test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
628 # <i>exit</i>
629 cdimage ~# <i>cd</i>
630 cdimage ~# <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo/dev{/pts,/shm,}</i>
631 cdimage ~# <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo{/boot,/sys,/proc,}</i>
632 cdimage ~# <i>reboot</i>
633 </pre>
634
635 <pre caption="Unmounting all partitions and rebooting" test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
636 # <i>exit</i>
637 cdimage ~# <i>cd</i>
638 cdimage ~# <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo/dev{/shm,/pts,}</i>
639 cdimage ~# <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo{/boot,/proc,}</i>
640 cdimage ~# <i>reboot</i>
641 </pre>
642
643 <p>
644 Of course, don't forget to remove the bootable CD, otherwise the CD will be
645 booted again instead of your new Gentoo system.
646 </p>
647
648 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
649 When you reboot you should see a new Gentoo Linux menu option in the EFI Boot
650 Manager which will boot Gentoo.
651 </p>
652
653 <p>
654 Once rebooted in your Gentoo installation, finish up with <uri
655 link="?part=1&amp;chap=11">Finalizing your Gentoo Installation</uri>.
656 </p>
657
658 </body>
659 </subsection>
660 </section>
661 </sections>

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