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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 swift 1.16 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-disk.xml,v 1.15 2011/08/23 17:31:34 swift Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.4 <abstract>
12     To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13     This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.16 <version>9</version>
17 swift 1.15 <date>2011-08-23</date>
18 neysx 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
21 nightmorph 1.10
22 neysx 1.1 <subsection>
23 nightmorph 1.10 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
24     </subsection>
25 neysx 1.1
26     <subsection>
27     <title>Partitions</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
32     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
33 neysx 1.2 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On <keyval id="arch"/>
34     systems, these are called <e>partitions</e>.
35 neysx 1.1 </p>
36    
37     <p>
38     Partitions are divided in three types:
39     <e>primary</e>, <e>extended</e> and <e>logical</e>.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     A <e>primary</e> partition is a partition which has its information stored in
44     the MBR (master boot record). As an MBR is very small (512 bytes) only four
45 nightmorph 1.11 primary partitions can be defined (for instance, <path>/dev/sda1</path> to
46     <path>/dev/sda4</path>).
47 neysx 1.1 </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     An <e>extended</e> partition is a special primary partition (meaning the
51     extended partition must be one of the four possible primary partitions) which
52     contains more partitions. Such a partition didn't exist originally, but as
53     four partitions were too few, it was brought to life to extend the formatting
54     scheme without losing backward compatibility.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58     A <e>logical</e> partition is a partition inside the extended partition. Their
59     definitions aren't placed inside the MBR, but are declared inside the extended
60     partition.
61     </p>
62    
63     </body>
64     </subsection>
65     <subsection>
66     <title>Advanced Storage</title>
67     <body>
68    
69     <p>
70 neysx 1.2 The <keyval id="arch"/> Installation CDs provide support for EVMS and LVM2.
71     EVMS and LVM2 increase the flexibility offered by your partitioning setup.
72     During the installation instructions, we will focus on "regular" partitions,
73     but it is still good to know EVMS and LVM2 are supported as well.
74 neysx 1.1 </p>
75    
76     </body>
77     </subsection>
78     </section>
79     <section>
80     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
81     <subsection>
82     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
83     <body>
84    
85     <p>
86     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
87     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
88     </p>
89    
90     <table>
91     <tr>
92     <th>Partition</th>
93     <th>Filesystem</th>
94     <th>Size</th>
95     <th>Description</th>
96     </tr>
97     <tr>
98 nightmorph 1.11 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
99 neysx 1.1 <ti>ext2</ti>
100     <ti>32M</ti>
101     <ti>Boot partition</ti>
102     </tr>
103     <tr>
104 nightmorph 1.11 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
105 neysx 1.1 <ti>(swap)</ti>
106     <ti>512M</ti>
107     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
108     </tr>
109     <tr>
110 nightmorph 1.11 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
111 neysx 1.1 <ti>ext3</ti>
112     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
113     <ti>Root partition</ti>
114     </tr>
115     </table>
116    
117     <p>
118     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
119     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with partitioning
120     your disk by reading <uri link="#fdisk">Using fdisk to Partition your
121 swift 1.15 Disk</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Using parted to Partition your Disk</uri>
122     (both are partitioning tools, <c>fdisk</c> is well known and stable,
123     <c>parted</c> is a bit more recent but supports partitions larger than
124     2TB).
125 neysx 1.1 </p>
126    
127     </body>
128     </subsection>
129     <subsection>
130     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
131     <body>
132    
133     <p>
134     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
135     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
136     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
137     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
138     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
139     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
140     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
141     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
142     security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
143     not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
144     takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
145     </p>
146    
147     <p>
148     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
149     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
150     </p>
151    
152     <ul>
153     <li>
154     You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
155     </li>
156     <li>
157     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
158     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
159     </li>
160     <li>
161     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
162     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
163     it is with multiple partitions)
164     </li>
165     <li>
166     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
167     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
168     </li>
169     </ul>
170    
171     <p>
172 neysx 1.2 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
173     properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
174     partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
175     SATA.
176 neysx 1.1 </p>
177    
178     <p>
179     As an example partitioning, we show you one for a 20GB disk, used as a
180     demonstration laptop (containing webserver, mailserver, gnome, ...):
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Filesystem usage example">
184     $ <i>df -h</i>
185     Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
186 nightmorph 1.11 /dev/sda5 ext3 509M 132M 351M 28% /
187     /dev/sda2 ext3 5.0G 3.0G 1.8G 63% /home
188     /dev/sda7 ext3 7.9G 6.2G 1.3G 83% /usr
189     /dev/sda8 ext3 1011M 483M 477M 51% /opt
190     /dev/sda9 ext3 2.0G 607M 1.3G 32% /var
191     /dev/sda1 ext2 51M 17M 31M 36% /boot
192     /dev/sda6 swap 516M 12M 504M 2% &lt;not mounted&gt;
193 neysx 1.1 <comment>(Unpartitioned space for future usage: 2 GB)</comment>
194     </pre>
195    
196     <p>
197     <path>/usr</path> is rather full (83% used) here, but once
198     all software is installed, <path>/usr</path> doesn't tend to grow that much.
199     Although allocating a few gigabytes of disk space for <path>/var</path> may
200     seem excessive, remember that Portage uses this partition by default for
201     compiling packages. If you want to keep <path>/var</path> at a more reasonable
202     size, such as 1GB, you will need to alter your <c>PORTAGE_TMPDIR</c> variable
203     in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to point to the partition with enough free space
204     for compiling extremely large packages such as OpenOffice.
205     </p>
206    
207     </body>
208     </subsection>
209     </section>
210     <section id="fdisk">
211     <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
212     <subsection>
213     <body>
214    
215 swift 1.15 <impo>
216     If your environment will deal with partitions larger than 2 TB, please
217     use the <uri link="#parted">Using parted to Partition your Disk</uri>
218     instructions instead. <c>fdisk</c> is not able to deal with larger
219     partitions.
220     </impo>
221    
222 neysx 1.1 <p>
223     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
224 swift 1.15 using <c>fdisk</c>. The example partition layout was mentioned earlier:
225 neysx 1.1 </p>
226    
227     <table>
228     <tr>
229     <th>Partition</th>
230     <th>Description</th>
231     </tr>
232     <tr>
233 nightmorph 1.11 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
234 neysx 1.1 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
235     </tr>
236     <tr>
237 nightmorph 1.11 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
238 neysx 1.1 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
239     </tr>
240     <tr>
241 nightmorph 1.11 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
242 neysx 1.1 <ti>Root partition</ti>
243     </tr>
244     </table>
245    
246     <p>
247     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
248     </p>
249    
250     </body>
251     </subsection>
252     <subsection>
253     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
254     <body>
255    
256     <p>
257     <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into partitions.
258     Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we use
259 nightmorph 1.11 <path>/dev/sda</path>):
260 neysx 1.1 </p>
261    
262     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
263 nightmorph 1.11 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
264 neysx 1.1 </pre>
265    
266     <p>
267     Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
268     </p>
269    
270     <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
271     Command (m for help):
272     </pre>
273    
274     <p>
275     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
276     </p>
277    
278     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
279     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
280    
281 nightmorph 1.11 Disk /dev/sda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
282 neysx 1.1 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
283    
284 neysx 1.12 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
285     /dev/sda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
286 nightmorph 1.11 /dev/sda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
287     /dev/sda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
288     /dev/sda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
289     /dev/sda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
290     /dev/sda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
291     /dev/sda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
292     /dev/sda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
293     /dev/sda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
294 neysx 1.1
295     Command (m for help):
296     </pre>
297    
298     <p>
299 neysx 1.2 This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each with
300     a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
301     (listed as "Linux swap").
302 neysx 1.1 </p>
303    
304     </body>
305     </subsection>
306     <subsection>
307     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
308     <body>
309    
310     <p>
311     We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type <c>d</c> to
312 nightmorph 1.11 delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
313 neysx 1.1 </p>
314    
315     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
316     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
317     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
318     </pre>
319    
320     <p>
321     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if you
322     type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been saved. If
323     you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes, type <c>q</c>
324     immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be deleted.
325     </p>
326    
327     <p>
328     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
329     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
330     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end
331     up with a partition table with nothing in it:
332     </p>
333    
334     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
335 nightmorph 1.11 Disk /dev/sda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
336 neysx 1.1 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
337     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
338    
339     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
340    
341     Command (m for help):
342     </pre>
343    
344     <p>
345     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create the
346     partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed previously.
347     Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if you don't want the
348     same partitioning scheme!
349     </p>
350    
351     </body>
352     </subsection>
353     <subsection>
354     <title>Creating the Boot Partition</title>
355     <body>
356    
357     <p>
358     We first create a small boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new partition,
359     then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by <c>1</c> to select the
360     first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When
361     prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a partition 32 Mbyte
362 neysx 1.12 in size and set its bootable flag:
363 neysx 1.1 </p>
364    
365     <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
366     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
367     Command action
368     e extended
369     p primary partition (1-4)
370     <i>p</i>
371     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
372     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
373     Using default value 1
374     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
375     </pre>
376    
377     <p>
378     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
379     </p>
380    
381     <pre caption="Created boot partition">
382     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
383    
384 nightmorph 1.11 Disk /dev/sda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
385 neysx 1.1 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
386     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
387    
388 neysx 1.12 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
389     /dev/sda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
390 neysx 1.1 </pre>
391    
392     <p>
393     We need to make this partition bootable. Type <c>a</c> to toggle the bootable
394 neysx 1.12 flag on a partition and select <c>1</c>. If you press <c>p</c> again, you will
395 neysx 1.1 notice that an <path>*</path> is placed in the "Boot" column.
396     </p>
397    
398     </body>
399     </subsection>
400     <subsection>
401     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
402     <body>
403    
404     <p>
405     Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
406     partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
407 nightmorph 1.11 type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path> in
408 neysx 1.1 our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
409     the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
410     you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select
411     the partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
412     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
413     display a partition table that looks similar to this:
414     </p>
415    
416     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
417     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
418    
419 nightmorph 1.11 Disk /dev/sda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
420 neysx 1.1 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
421     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
422    
423 neysx 1.12 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
424     /dev/sda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
425     /dev/sda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
426 neysx 1.1 </pre>
427    
428     </body>
429     </subsection>
430     <subsection>
431     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
432     <body>
433    
434     <p>
435     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
436     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
437 nightmorph 1.11 Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path>
438 neysx 1.1 in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
439     the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the
440     remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c>
441     should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
442     </p>
443    
444     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
445     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
446    
447 nightmorph 1.11 Disk /dev/sda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
448 neysx 1.1 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
449     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
450    
451 neysx 1.12 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
452     /dev/sda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
453     /dev/sda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
454     /dev/sda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
455 neysx 1.1 </pre>
456    
457     </body>
458     </subsection>
459     <subsection>
460     <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
461     <body>
462    
463     <p>
464     To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
465     </p>
466    
467     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
468     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
469     </pre>
470    
471     <p>
472 nightmorph 1.13 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
473 neysx 1.1 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
474     </p>
475    
476     </body>
477     </subsection>
478     </section>
479 swift 1.15 <section id="parted">
480     <title>Using parted to Partition your Disk</title>
481     <subsection>
482     <body>
483    
484     <p>
485     In this chapter, we guide you through the creation of the example partition
486     layout mentioned earlier in the instructions. Unlike the previous chapter, we
487     describe the method using the <c>parted</c> application instead. Both
488     <c>parted</c> and <c>fdisk</c> offer the same functions, so if you partitioned
489     your system using <c>fdisk</c> already, you can skip this section and continue
490     with <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
491     </p>
492    
493     <p>
494     The example partition layout we use is shown in the next table:
495     </p>
496    
497     <table>
498     <tr>
499     <th>Partition</th>
500     <th>Description</th>
501     </tr>
502     <tr>
503     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
504     <ti>Boot partition</ti>
505     </tr>
506     <tr>
507     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
508     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
509     </tr>
510     <tr>
511     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
512     <ti>Root partition</ti>
513     </tr>
514     </table>
515    
516     <p>
517     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
518     </p>
519    
520     </body>
521     </subsection>
522     <subsection>
523     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
524     <body>
525    
526     <p>
527     The <c>parted</c> application is a somewhat more modern variant of
528     <c>fdisk</c>. It offers a simpler interface for partitioning your disks and
529     supports very large partitions (more than 2 TB). Fire up <c>parted</c> on your
530     disk (in our example, we use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
531     </p>
532    
533     <pre caption="Starting parted">
534     # <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
535     GNU Parted 2.3
536     Using /dev/vda
537     Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
538     </pre>
539    
540     <p>
541     To find out about all options supported by <c>parted</c>, type <c>help</c> and
542     press return. For now, we just continue by asking <c>parted</c> to show the
543     partitions currently in use on the selected disk. The <c>print</c> command can
544     be used for that.
545     </p>
546    
547     <pre caption="An example partition configuration shown by parted">
548     (parted) <i>print</i>
549     Model: SCSI Block Device
550     Disk /dev/sda: 21.5GB
551     Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
552     Partition Table: msdos
553    
554     Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
555     1 512B 2148MB 2148MB primary ext4
556     2 2148MB 3222MB 1074MB primary linux-swap(v1)
557     3 3222MB 21.5GB 18.3GB primary lvm
558     </pre>
559    
560     </body>
561     </subsection>
562     <subsection>
563     <title>Optional: Setting the GPT Label</title>
564     <body>
565    
566     <p>
567     Most disks on x86/amd64 are prepared using an <e>msdos</e> label. However, if
568     you plan on creating huge partitions (2 TB and more), you must use a <e>gpt</e>
569     label (the <e>GUID Partition Type</e>) for your disk. Using <c>parted</c>, this
570     can be accomplished with <c>mklabel gpt</c>:
571     </p>
572    
573     <warn>
574     Changing the partition type will remove all partitions from your disk. All data
575     on the disk will be lost.
576     </warn>
577    
578     <pre caption="Setting the GPT label">
579     (parted) <i>mklabel gpt</i>
580     </pre>
581    
582     </body>
583     </subsection>
584     <subsection>
585     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
586     <body>
587    
588     <p>
589     If this isn't done yet (for instance through the <c>mklabel</c> operation
590     earlier, or because the disk is a freshly formatted one), we will first
591     remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type <c>rm &lt;number&gt;</c>
592     where &lt;number&gt; is the partition you want to remove.
593     </p>
594    
595     <pre caption="Removing a partition from the disk">
596     (parted) <i>rm 2</i>
597     </pre>
598    
599     <p>
600     Do the same for all other partitions that you don't need. However, make sure you
601     do not make any mistakes here - <c>parted</c> executes the changes immediate
602     (unlike <c>fdisk</c> which stages them, allowing a user to "undo" his changes
603     before saving or exiting <c>fdisk</c>).
604     </p>
605    
606     </body>
607     </subsection>
608     <subsection>
609     <title>Creating the Partitions</title>
610     <body>
611    
612     <p>
613     Now let's create the partitions we mentioned earlier. Creating partitions with
614     <c>parted</c> isn't very difficult - all we need to do is inform <c>parted</c>
615     about the following settings:
616     </p>
617    
618     <ul>
619     <li>
620     The <e>partition type</e> to use. This usually is <e>primary</e> in case you
621     are not going to have more than 4 partitions (with the <e>msdos</e>
622     partition label). Otherwise, you will need to make your fourth partition an
623     <e>extended</e> one which hosts the rest of the disk, and create
624     <e>logical</e> partitions inside it. If you use a <e>gpt</e>-labeled
625     partition, then there is no limit on the number of primary partitions.
626     </li>
627     <li>
628     The <e>file system type</e> to use. The <c>parted</c> application supports
629     most common file systems and knows which kind of partition ID it needs to
630     use for these partitions. This does <e>not</e> mean that <c>parted</c> will
631     create a file system on the partition (you can with the <c>mkpartfs</c>
632     command, but we'll use the regular <c>mkfs.*</c> commands later for this
633     purpose). The partition ID is often used by auto-detection tools to know
634     what to do with a particular partition.
635     </li>
636     <li>
637     The start location of a partition (which can be expressed in MB or GB)
638     </li>
639     <li>
640     The end location of the partition (which can be expressed in MB or GB)
641     </li>
642     </ul>
643    
644     <p>
645     One advantage of <c>parted</c> is that you can easily just use the partition
646     sizes to automatically find the correct start and end location as you will see
647     in the next example.
648     </p>
649    
650     <pre caption="Creating the partitions">
651     <comment># Create a 32 mbyte /boot partition</comment>
652     (parted) <i>mkpart primary ext2 0 32mb</i>
653     Warning: The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best performance.
654     Ignore/Cancel? <i>i</i>
655    
656     <comment># Create a 512 mbyte swap partition</comment>
657     (parted) <i>mkpart primary linux-swap 32mb 542mb</i>
658    
659     <comment># Create a partition that spans the remaining disk.
660     # -1s (minus one s) means the end of the disk</comment>
661     (parted) <i>mkpart primary ext4 542mb -1s</i>
662     Warning: You requested a partition from 542MB to 21.5GB.
663     The closest location we can manage is 542MB to 21.5GB.
664     Is this still acceptable to you?
665     Yes/No? <i>y</i>
666     </pre>
667    
668     <p>
669     You can now <c>print</c> the partition layout again to validate if everything is
670     as expected. When you are satisfied, use the <c>quit</c> command to exit
671     <c>parted</c>.
672     </p>
673    
674     </body>
675     </subsection>
676     </section>
677 neysx 1.1 <section id="filesystems">
678     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
679     <subsection>
680     <title>Introduction</title>
681     <body>
682    
683     <p>
684     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
685     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
686     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
687     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
688     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
689     </p>
690    
691     </body>
692     </subsection>
693 nightmorph 1.10
694 neysx 1.1 <subsection>
695 nightmorph 1.10 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
696     </subsection>
697 neysx 1.1
698     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
699     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
700     <body>
701    
702     <p>
703     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
704     each possible filesystem:
705     </p>
706    
707     <table>
708     <tr>
709     <th>Filesystem</th>
710     <th>Creation Command</th>
711     </tr>
712     <tr>
713     <ti>ext2</ti>
714 swift 1.14 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
715 neysx 1.1 </tr>
716     <tr>
717     <ti>ext3</ti>
718 swift 1.14 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
719 neysx 1.1 </tr>
720     <tr>
721 swift 1.16 <ti>ext4</ti>
722     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
723     </tr>
724     <tr>
725 neysx 1.1 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
726     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
727     </tr>
728     <tr>
729     <ti>xfs</ti>
730     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
731     </tr>
732     <tr>
733     <ti>jfs</ti>
734     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
735     </tr>
736     </table>
737    
738     <p>
739 nightmorph 1.11 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
740     example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
741 neysx 1.1 in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
742     </p>
743    
744     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
745 swift 1.14 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1</i>
746     # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda3</i>
747 neysx 1.1 </pre>
748    
749     <p>
750     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
751     volumes).
752     </p>
753    
754     </body>
755     </subsection>
756     <subsection>
757     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
758     <body>
759    
760     <p>
761     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
762     </p>
763    
764     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
765 nightmorph 1.11 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
766 neysx 1.1 </pre>
767    
768     <p>
769     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
770     </p>
771    
772     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
773 nightmorph 1.11 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
774 neysx 1.1 </pre>
775    
776     <p>
777     Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
778     </p>
779    
780     </body>
781     </subsection>
782     </section>
783     <section>
784     <title>Mounting</title>
785     <body>
786    
787     <p>
788     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
789     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
790     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
791     example we mount the root and boot partition:
792     </p>
793    
794     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
795 nightmorph 1.11 # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
796 neysx 1.1 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
797 nightmorph 1.11 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
798 neysx 1.1 </pre>
799    
800     <note>
801     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
802     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
803     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
804     </note>
805    
806     <p>
807     We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
808     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
809     </p>
810    
811     <p>
812     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
813     Installation Files</uri>.
814     </p>
815    
816     </body>
817     </section>
818     </sections>

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