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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-disk.xml,v 1.9 2007/06/26 07:07:27 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-disk.xml,v 1.10 2008/04/01 08:53:46 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions. 12To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage. 13This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14</abstract> 14</abstract>
15 15
16<version>5.1</version> 16<version>6.0</version>
17<date>2007-06-26</date> 17<date>2008-04-01</date>
18 18
19<section> 19<section>
20<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 20<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
21<subsection>
22<title>Block Devices</title>
23<body>
24 21
25<p>
26We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
27and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
28Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
29you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
30for your Gentoo Linux installation.
31</p>
32
33<p>
34To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
35probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
36<path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI or SATA drives, then your
37first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
38</p>
39
40<p>
41The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
42programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
43about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
44simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
45randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
46</p>
47
48</body>
49</subsection> 22<subsection>
23<include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
24</subsection>
25
50<subsection> 26<subsection>
51<title>Partitions</title> 27<title>Partitions</title>
52<body> 28<body>
53 29
54<p> 30<p>
504Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 480Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
505</p> 481</p>
506 482
507</body> 483</body>
508</subsection> 484</subsection>
509<subsection>
510<title>Filesystems?</title>
511<body>
512 485
513<p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
514The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain ext2, ext3,
515ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on Linux
516systems.
517</p>
518
519<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
520Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the amd64
521architecture, others aren't. The following filesystems are found to be stable:
522ext2 and ext3. jfs and reiserfs may work but need more testing. If you're
523really adventurous you can try the unsupported filesystems.
524</p>
525
526<p>
527<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
528journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
529be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
530journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
531thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
532filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
533happens to be in an inconsistent state.
534</p>
535
536<p>
537<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
538journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
539full data and ordered data journaling. It uses an HTree index that enables high
540performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very good and reliable
541filesystem.
542</p>
543
544<p>
545<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B+tree-based filesystem that has very good overall
546performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
547files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
548extremely well and has metadata journaling. ReiserFS is solid and usable as
549both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of
550large filesystems, very large files and directories containing tens of
551thousands of small files.
552</p>
553
554<p>
555<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
556feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
557filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
558an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
559in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
560when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
561deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
562</p>
563
564<p>
565<b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
566become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
567comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
568</p>
569
570</body>
571</subsection> 486<subsection>
487<include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
488</subsection>
489
572<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 490<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
573<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title> 491<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
574<body> 492<body>
575 493
576<p> 494<p>

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