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#178179 cp timezone file to /etc/localtime to prevent warning until next emerge of sys-libs/timezone-data

1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.11 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.10 2007/05/07 18:11:41 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.6 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 neysx 1.11 <version>5.1</version>
17     <date>2007-05-15</date>
18 neysx 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.11 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.1 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.11 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 neysx 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 neysx 1.11 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 neysx 1.1 </pre>
37    
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51     Guide</uri>.
52     </p>
53    
54 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
55 nightmorph 1.8 For x86-based systems we have, amongst other kernels, <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56     (kernel source patched with performance-enhancing features).
57 neysx 1.1 </p>
58    
59 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
60 nightmorph 1.10 For AMD64-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> (kernel source patched
61     with amd64 specific fixes for stability, performance and hardware support).
62 neysx 1.2 </p>
63    
64 neysx 1.1 <p>
65 nightmorph 1.8 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
66 neysx 1.1 </p>
67    
68     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
69 nightmorph 1.8 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
70 neysx 1.1 </pre>
71    
72     <p>
73     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
74     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
75 neysx 1.2 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
76     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
77 neysx 1.1 </p>
78    
79     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
80     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
81 neysx 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
82 neysx 1.1 </pre>
83    
84     <p>
85 neysx 1.2 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
86     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
87     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
88     the best way to optimize your environment.
89 neysx 1.1 </p>
90    
91     <p>
92     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
93     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
94     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
95     genkernel</uri> instead.
96     </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </subsection>
100     </section>
101     <section id="manual">
102     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
103     <subsection>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
109     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
110     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
111     </p>
112    
113     <p>
114     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
115     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
116     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
117     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
118     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
119     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
120     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
121     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
122     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
123     </p>
124    
125     <p>
126     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
127     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
131     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
132     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
133     </pre>
134    
135     <p>
136     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
137     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
138     properly without additional tweaks).
139     </p>
140    
141     </body>
142     </subsection>
143     <subsection>
144     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
145     <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
149     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
150     </p>
151    
152 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
153 neysx 1.1 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
154     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
155     </pre>
156    
157     <p>
158     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
159     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
160     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
161     </p>
162    
163 neysx 1.2 </body>
164     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
165    
166     <p>
167     We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
168     strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
169     notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
170     <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
171     requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package.
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
175     Processor type and features --->
176     [ ] Intel MCE Features
177     [ ] AMD MCE Features
178     Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
179     ( ) AMD-Opteron/Athlon64
180     ( ) Intel EM64T
181     ( ) Generic-x86-64
182     </pre>
183    
184     </body>
185     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
186    
187 neysx 1.1 <p>
188     Now select the correct processor family:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
192     Processor type and features ---&gt;
193     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
194     (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
195     </pre>
196    
197 neysx 1.2 </body>
198     <body>
199    
200 neysx 1.1 <p>
201     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
202     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
203     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
204 neysx 1.2 file system</c>.
205     </p>
206    
207     </body>
208     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
209    
210 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
211     File systems ---&gt;
212     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
213     [*] /proc file system support
214     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
215    
216     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
217     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
218     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
219     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
220     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
221     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
222     </pre>
223    
224 neysx 1.2 </body>
225     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
226    
227     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
228     File systems ---&gt;
229     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
230     [*] /proc file system support
231     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
232    
233     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
234     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
235     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
236     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
237     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
238     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
239     </pre>
240    
241     </body>
242     <body>
243    
244 neysx 1.1 <p>
245     Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
246     </p>
247    
248     <pre caption="Activating DMA">
249     Device Drivers ---&gt;
250     ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
251     [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
252     [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
253     </pre>
254    
255     <p>
256     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
257     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
258     </p>
259    
260 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
261     Device Drivers ---&gt;
262     Networking Support ---&gt;
263     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
264     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
265     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
266     </pre>
267    
268     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
269 neysx 1.1 Device Drivers ---&gt;
270     Networking support ---&gt;
271     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
272     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
273     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
274     </pre>
275    
276     <p>
277     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
278 nightmorph 1.10 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
279     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
280 neysx 1.1 </p>
281    
282     <p>
283     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
284     ethernet card.
285     </p>
286    
287 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
288 neysx 1.1 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
289     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
290     </p>
291    
292 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
293     If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
294     should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
295     </p>
296    
297 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
298     Processor type and features ---&gt;
299     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
300     </pre>
301    
302     <note>
303     In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
304     </note>
305    
306     <p>
307     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
308     those as well:
309     </p>
310    
311     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
312 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
313     USB Support ---&gt;
314     &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
315 neysx 1.1 </pre>
316    
317 neysx 1.2 </body>
318     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
319    
320 neysx 1.1 <p>
321 nightmorph 1.10 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
322 neysx 1.1 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
323     </p>
324    
325 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
326 neysx 1.1 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
327     PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
328     &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
329     <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
330     &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
331     [*] 32-bit CardBus support
332     <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
333     --- PC-card bridges
334     &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
335     &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
336     &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
337     &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
338     &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
339     </pre>
340    
341     <p>
342     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
343     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
344     </p>
345    
346     </body>
347     </subsection>
348     <subsection id="compiling">
349     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
350     <body>
351    
352     <p>
353     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
354     the configuration and start the compilation process:
355     </p>
356    
357 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
358 neysx 1.2 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
359     </pre>
360    
361 neysx 1.1 <p>
362     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
363     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
364     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
365 neysx 1.2 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
366     name and version of your kernel.
367 neysx 1.1 </p>
368    
369     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
370 neysx 1.2 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
371 neysx 1.1 </pre>
372    
373 neysx 1.4 <p>
374     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
375     </p>
376    
377 neysx 1.1 </body>
378     </subsection>
379     </section>
380     <section id="genkernel">
381     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
382     <body>
383    
384     <p>
385     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
386     script to configure your kernel for you.
387     </p>
388    
389     <p>
390     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
391     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
392     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
393     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
394     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
395     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
396     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
397     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
398     </p>
399    
400     <p>
401     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
402     </p>
403    
404     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
405     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
406     </pre>
407    
408 neysx 1.2 </body>
409     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
410    
411 neysx 1.1 <p>
412 nightmorph 1.10 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
413     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
414 neysx 1.1 </p>
415    
416     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
417     # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/x86/kernel-config-2.6</i>
418     </pre>
419    
420 neysx 1.2 </body>
421     <body>
422    
423 neysx 1.1 <p>
424     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
425     though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
426     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
427     </p>
428    
429     <p>
430     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
431     might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
432     all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
433     <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
434     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
435     </p>
436    
437     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
438     # <i>genkernel all</i>
439     </pre>
440    
441     <p>
442     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
443     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
444     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
445     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
446     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
447     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
448     before your "real" system starts up.
449     </p>
450    
451     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
452     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
453     </pre>
454    
455     </body>
456     </section>
457     <section id="kernel_modules">
458     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
459     <subsection>
460     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
461     <body>
462    
463     <p>
464 neysx 1.2 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
465     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
466     the modules too if you want.
467 neysx 1.1 </p>
468    
469     <p>
470     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
471 neysx 1.2 forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
472     the kernel you just compiled:
473 neysx 1.1 </p>
474    
475     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
476 neysx 1.2 # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
477 neysx 1.1 </pre>
478    
479     <p>
480     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
481 neysx 1.2 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
482 neysx 1.1 </p>
483    
484 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
485     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
486 neysx 1.1 </pre>
487    
488 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
489 neysx 1.1 3c59x
490     </pre>
491    
492     <p>
493     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
494     your System</uri>.
495     </p>
496    
497     </body>
498     </subsection>
499     </section>
500     </sections>

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