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No "Use PCI DMA by default" anymore (bug #186514)

1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 swift 1.14 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.13 2007/05/20 20:32:23 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.6 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.14 <version>5.2</version>
17     <date>2007-07-27</date>
18 neysx 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.11 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.1 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.11 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 neysx 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 neysx 1.11 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 neysx 1.1 </pre>
37    
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51     Guide</uri>.
52     </p>
53    
54 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
55 nightmorph 1.8 For x86-based systems we have, amongst other kernels, <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56     (kernel source patched with performance-enhancing features).
57 neysx 1.1 </p>
58    
59 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
60 nightmorph 1.10 For AMD64-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> (kernel source patched
61     with amd64 specific fixes for stability, performance and hardware support).
62 neysx 1.2 </p>
63    
64 neysx 1.1 <p>
65 nightmorph 1.8 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
66 neysx 1.1 </p>
67    
68     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
69 nightmorph 1.8 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
70 neysx 1.1 </pre>
71    
72     <p>
73     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
74     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
75 neysx 1.2 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
76     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
77 neysx 1.1 </p>
78    
79     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
80     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
81 neysx 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
82 neysx 1.1 </pre>
83    
84     <p>
85 neysx 1.2 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
86     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
87     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
88     the best way to optimize your environment.
89 neysx 1.1 </p>
90    
91     <p>
92     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
93     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
94     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
95     genkernel</uri> instead.
96     </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </subsection>
100     </section>
101     <section id="manual">
102     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
103     <subsection>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
109     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
110     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
111     </p>
112    
113     <p>
114     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
115     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
116     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
117     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
118     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
119     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
120     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
121     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
122     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
123     </p>
124    
125     <p>
126     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
127     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
131     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
132     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
133     </pre>
134    
135     <p>
136     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
137     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
138     properly without additional tweaks).
139     </p>
140    
141     </body>
142     </subsection>
143     <subsection>
144     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
145     <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
149     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
150     </p>
151    
152 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
153 neysx 1.1 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
154     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
155     </pre>
156    
157     <p>
158     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
159     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
160     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
161     </p>
162    
163 neysx 1.2 </body>
164     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
165    
166     <p>
167     We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
168     strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
169     notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
170     <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
171     requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package.
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
175     Processor type and features --->
176     [ ] Intel MCE Features
177     [ ] AMD MCE Features
178     Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
179     ( ) AMD-Opteron/Athlon64
180     ( ) Intel EM64T
181     ( ) Generic-x86-64
182     </pre>
183    
184     </body>
185     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
186    
187 neysx 1.1 <p>
188     Now select the correct processor family:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
192     Processor type and features ---&gt;
193     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
194     (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
195     </pre>
196    
197 neysx 1.2 </body>
198     <body>
199    
200 neysx 1.1 <p>
201     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
202     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
203     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
204 neysx 1.2 file system</c>.
205     </p>
206    
207     </body>
208     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
209    
210 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
211     File systems ---&gt;
212     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
213     [*] /proc file system support
214     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
215    
216     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
217     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
218     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
219     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
220     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
221     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
222     </pre>
223    
224 neysx 1.2 </body>
225     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
226    
227     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
228     File systems ---&gt;
229     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
230     [*] /proc file system support
231     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
232    
233     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
234     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
235     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
236     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
237     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
238     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
239     </pre>
240    
241     </body>
242     <body>
243    
244 neysx 1.1 <p>
245     Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
246     </p>
247    
248     <pre caption="Activating DMA">
249     Device Drivers ---&gt;
250     ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
251     [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
252     </pre>
253    
254     <p>
255     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
256     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
257     </p>
258    
259 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
260     Device Drivers ---&gt;
261     Networking Support ---&gt;
262     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
263     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
264     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
265     </pre>
266    
267     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
268 neysx 1.1 Device Drivers ---&gt;
269     Networking support ---&gt;
270     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
271     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
272     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
273     </pre>
274    
275     <p>
276     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
277 nightmorph 1.10 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
278     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
279 neysx 1.1 </p>
280    
281     <p>
282     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
283     ethernet card.
284     </p>
285    
286 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
287 neysx 1.1 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
288     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
289     </p>
290    
291 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
292     If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
293     should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
294     </p>
295    
296 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
297     Processor type and features ---&gt;
298     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
299     </pre>
300    
301     <note>
302     In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
303     </note>
304    
305     <p>
306     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
307     those as well:
308     </p>
309    
310     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
311 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
312     USB Support ---&gt;
313     &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
314 neysx 1.1 </pre>
315    
316 neysx 1.2 </body>
317     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
318    
319 neysx 1.1 <p>
320 nightmorph 1.10 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
321 neysx 1.1 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
322     </p>
323    
324 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
325 neysx 1.1 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
326     PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
327     &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
328     <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
329     &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
330     [*] 32-bit CardBus support
331     <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
332     --- PC-card bridges
333     &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
334     &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
335     &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
336     &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
337     &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
338     </pre>
339    
340     <p>
341     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
342     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
343     </p>
344    
345     </body>
346     </subsection>
347     <subsection id="compiling">
348     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
349     <body>
350    
351     <p>
352     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
353     the configuration and start the compilation process:
354     </p>
355    
356 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
357 neysx 1.2 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
358     </pre>
359    
360 neysx 1.1 <p>
361     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
362     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
363     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
364 neysx 1.2 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
365     name and version of your kernel.
366 neysx 1.1 </p>
367    
368     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
369 neysx 1.2 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
370 neysx 1.1 </pre>
371    
372 neysx 1.4 <p>
373     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
374     </p>
375    
376 neysx 1.1 </body>
377     </subsection>
378     </section>
379     <section id="genkernel">
380     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
381     <body>
382    
383     <p>
384     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
385     script to configure your kernel for you.
386     </p>
387    
388     <p>
389     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
390     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
391     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
392     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
393     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
394     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
395     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
396     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
397     </p>
398    
399     <p>
400     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
401     </p>
402    
403     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
404     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
405     </pre>
406    
407 neysx 1.2 </body>
408     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
409    
410 neysx 1.1 <p>
411 nightmorph 1.10 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
412     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
413 neysx 1.1 </p>
414    
415     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
416     # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/x86/kernel-config-2.6</i>
417     </pre>
418    
419 neysx 1.2 </body>
420     <body>
421    
422 neysx 1.1 <p>
423     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
424     though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
425     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
426     </p>
427    
428     <p>
429     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
430     might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
431     all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
432     <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
433     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
434     </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
437     # <i>genkernel all</i>
438     </pre>
439    
440     <p>
441     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
442     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
443     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
444     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
445     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
446     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
447     before your "real" system starts up.
448     </p>
449    
450     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
451     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
452     </pre>
453    
454     </body>
455     </section>
456     <section id="kernel_modules">
457     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
458     <subsection>
459     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
460     <body>
461    
462     <p>
463 neysx 1.2 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
464     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
465     the modules too if you want.
466 neysx 1.1 </p>
467    
468     <p>
469     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
470 neysx 1.2 forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
471     the kernel you just compiled:
472 neysx 1.1 </p>
473    
474     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
475 neysx 1.2 # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
476 neysx 1.1 </pre>
477    
478     <p>
479     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
480 neysx 1.2 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
481 neysx 1.1 </p>
482    
483 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
484     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
485 neysx 1.1 </pre>
486    
487 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
488 neysx 1.1 3c59x
489     </pre>
490    
491     <p>
492     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
493     your System</uri>.
494     </p>
495    
496     </body>
497     </subsection>
498     </section>
499     </sections>

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