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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 rane 1.21 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.20 2008/01/12 22:51:31 neysx Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.6 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 rane 1.21 <version>5.8</version>
17     <date>2008-01-14</date>
18 neysx 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.11 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.1 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.11 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 neysx 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 neysx 1.11 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 neysx 1.1 </pre>
37    
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51     Guide</uri>.
52     </p>
53    
54 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
55 nightmorph 1.8 For x86-based systems we have, amongst other kernels, <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56 neysx 1.18 (kernel source patched for extra features).
57 neysx 1.1 </p>
58    
59 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
60 nightmorph 1.10 For AMD64-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> (kernel source patched
61 neysx 1.18 for extra features).
62 neysx 1.2 </p>
63    
64 neysx 1.1 <p>
65 nightmorph 1.8 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
66 neysx 1.1 </p>
67    
68     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
69 nightmorph 1.8 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
70 neysx 1.1 </pre>
71    
72     <p>
73     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
74     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
75 neysx 1.2 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
76     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
77 neysx 1.1 </p>
78    
79     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
80     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
81 neysx 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
82 neysx 1.1 </pre>
83    
84     <p>
85 neysx 1.2 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
86     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
87     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
88     the best way to optimize your environment.
89 neysx 1.1 </p>
90    
91     <p>
92     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
93     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
94     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
95     genkernel</uri> instead.
96     </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </subsection>
100     </section>
101     <section id="manual">
102     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
103     <subsection>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
109     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
110     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
111     </p>
112    
113     <p>
114     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
115     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
116     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
117     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
118     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
119     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
120     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
121     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
122     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
123     </p>
124    
125     <p>
126     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
127     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
131     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
132     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
133     </pre>
134    
135     <p>
136     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
137     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
138     properly without additional tweaks).
139     </p>
140    
141     </body>
142     </subsection>
143     <subsection>
144     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
145     <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
149     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
150     </p>
151    
152 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
153 neysx 1.20 General setup ---&gt;
154 neysx 1.1 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
155     </pre>
156    
157     <p>
158     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
159     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
160     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
161     </p>
162    
163 neysx 1.2 </body>
164     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
165    
166     <p>
167     We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
168     strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
169     notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
170     <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
171 nightmorph 1.19 requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package. Make sure you select IA32
172     Emulation if you want to be able to run 32-bit programs. Gentoo will install a
173     multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so you probably
174     want this option.
175 neysx 1.2 </p>
176    
177     <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
178     Processor type and features --->
179     [ ] Intel MCE Features
180     [ ] AMD MCE Features
181     Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
182     ( ) AMD-Opteron/Athlon64
183     ( ) Intel EM64T
184     ( ) Generic-x86-64
185 nightmorph 1.19 Executable file formats / Emulations --->
186     [*] IA32 Emulation
187 neysx 1.2 </pre>
188    
189     </body>
190     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
191    
192 neysx 1.1 <p>
193     Now select the correct processor family:
194     </p>
195    
196     <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
197     Processor type and features ---&gt;
198     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
199     (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
200     </pre>
201    
202 neysx 1.2 </body>
203     <body>
204    
205 neysx 1.1 <p>
206     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
207     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
208     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
209 neysx 1.2 file system</c>.
210     </p>
211    
212     </body>
213     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
214    
215 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
216     File systems ---&gt;
217     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
218     [*] /proc file system support
219     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
220    
221     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
222     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
223     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
224     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
225     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
226     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
227     </pre>
228    
229 neysx 1.2 </body>
230     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
231    
232     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
233     File systems ---&gt;
234     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
235     [*] /proc file system support
236     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
237    
238     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
239     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
240     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
241     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
242     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
243     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
244     </pre>
245    
246     </body>
247     <body>
248    
249 neysx 1.1 <p>
250     Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
251     </p>
252    
253     <pre caption="Activating DMA">
254     Device Drivers ---&gt;
255     ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
256     [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
257     </pre>
258    
259     <p>
260     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
261     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
262     </p>
263    
264 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
265     Device Drivers ---&gt;
266     Networking Support ---&gt;
267     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
268     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
269     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
270     </pre>
271    
272     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
273 neysx 1.1 Device Drivers ---&gt;
274     Networking support ---&gt;
275     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
276     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
277     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
278     </pre>
279    
280     <p>
281     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
282 nightmorph 1.10 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
283     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
284 neysx 1.1 </p>
285    
286     <p>
287     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
288     ethernet card.
289     </p>
290    
291 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
292 neysx 1.1 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
293     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
294     </p>
295    
296 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
297     If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
298     should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
299     </p>
300    
301 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
302     Processor type and features ---&gt;
303     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
304     </pre>
305    
306     <note>
307     In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
308     </note>
309    
310     <p>
311     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
312     those as well:
313     </p>
314    
315     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
316 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
317 rane 1.21 HID Devices --->
318 neysx 1.2 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
319 neysx 1.1 </pre>
320    
321 neysx 1.2 </body>
322     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
323    
324 neysx 1.1 <p>
325 nightmorph 1.10 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
326 neysx 1.1 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
327     </p>
328    
329 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
330 neysx 1.1 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
331     PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
332     &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
333     <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
334     &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
335     [*] 32-bit CardBus support
336     <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
337     --- PC-card bridges
338     &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
339     &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
340     &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
341     &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
342     &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
343     </pre>
344    
345     <p>
346     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
347     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
348     </p>
349    
350     </body>
351     </subsection>
352     <subsection id="compiling">
353     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
354     <body>
355    
356     <p>
357     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
358     the configuration and start the compilation process:
359     </p>
360    
361 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
362 neysx 1.2 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
363     </pre>
364    
365 neysx 1.1 <p>
366     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
367     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
368     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
369 neysx 1.2 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
370     name and version of your kernel.
371 neysx 1.1 </p>
372    
373     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
374 neysx 1.2 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
375 neysx 1.1 </pre>
376    
377 neysx 1.4 <p>
378     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
379     </p>
380    
381 neysx 1.1 </body>
382     </subsection>
383     </section>
384     <section id="genkernel">
385     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
386     <body>
387    
388     <p>
389     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
390     script to configure your kernel for you.
391     </p>
392    
393     <p>
394     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
395     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
396     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
397     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
398     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
399     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
400     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
401     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
402     </p>
403    
404     <p>
405     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
406     </p>
407    
408     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
409     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
410     </pre>
411    
412 neysx 1.2 </body>
413     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
414    
415 neysx 1.1 <p>
416 nightmorph 1.10 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
417     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
418 neysx 1.1 </p>
419    
420     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
421     # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/x86/kernel-config-2.6</i>
422     </pre>
423    
424 neysx 1.2 </body>
425     <body>
426    
427 neysx 1.1 <p>
428     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
429     though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
430     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
431     </p>
432    
433     <p>
434     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
435     might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
436     all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
437     <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
438     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
439     </p>
440    
441     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
442     # <i>genkernel all</i>
443     </pre>
444    
445     <p>
446     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
447     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
448     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
449     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
450     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
451     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
452     before your "real" system starts up.
453     </p>
454    
455     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
456     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
457     </pre>
458    
459     </body>
460     </section>
461     <section id="kernel_modules">
462     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
463     <subsection>
464     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
465     <body>
466    
467     <p>
468 neysx 1.2 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
469     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
470     the modules too if you want.
471 neysx 1.1 </p>
472    
473     <p>
474 nightmorph 1.17 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
475     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
476     just compiled:
477 neysx 1.1 </p>
478    
479     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
480 nightmorph 1.17 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
481 neysx 1.1 </pre>
482    
483     <p>
484 nightmorph 1.16 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.ko</c> module, edit the
485 neysx 1.2 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
486 neysx 1.1 </p>
487    
488 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
489     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
490 neysx 1.1 </pre>
491    
492 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
493 neysx 1.1 3c59x
494     </pre>
495    
496     <p>
497     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
498     your System</uri>.
499     </p>
500    
501     </body>
502     </subsection>
503     </section>
504     </sections>

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