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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.23 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.22 2008/04/01 08:53:46 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.6 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 nightmorph 1.23 <version>6.1</version>
17     <date>2008-04-13</date>
18 neysx 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.11 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.1 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.11 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 neysx 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 neysx 1.11 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 neysx 1.1 </pre>
37    
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51     Guide</uri>.
52     </p>
53    
54 nightmorph 1.22 <p>
55     For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56 neysx 1.18 (kernel source patched for extra features).
57 neysx 1.1 </p>
58    
59     <p>
60 nightmorph 1.8 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 neysx 1.1 </p>
62    
63     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 nightmorph 1.8 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 neysx 1.1 </pre>
66    
67     <p>
68     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 neysx 1.2 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 neysx 1.1 </p>
73    
74     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 neysx 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 neysx 1.1 </pre>
78    
79     <p>
80 neysx 1.2 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83     the best way to optimize your environment.
84 neysx 1.1 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90     genkernel</uri> instead.
91     </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     </section>
96     <section id="manual">
97     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98     <subsection>
99     <title>Introduction</title>
100     <body>
101    
102     <p>
103     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106     </p>
107    
108     <p>
109     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118     </p>
119    
120     <p>
121     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p>
131     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133     properly without additional tweaks).
134     </p>
135    
136     </body>
137     </subsection>
138     <subsection>
139     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140     <body>
141    
142     <p>
143     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
144     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
145     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
146     </p>
147    
148 neysx 1.2 </body>
149     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
150    
151     <p>
152     We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
153     strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
154     notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
155     <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
156 nightmorph 1.19 requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package. Make sure you select IA32
157     Emulation if you want to be able to run 32-bit programs. Gentoo will install a
158     multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so you probably
159     want this option.
160 neysx 1.2 </p>
161    
162     <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
163     Processor type and features --->
164     [ ] Intel MCE Features
165     [ ] AMD MCE Features
166     Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
167     ( ) AMD-Opteron/Athlon64
168     ( ) Intel EM64T
169     ( ) Generic-x86-64
170 nightmorph 1.19 Executable file formats / Emulations --->
171     [*] IA32 Emulation
172 neysx 1.2 </pre>
173    
174     </body>
175     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
176    
177 neysx 1.1 <p>
178     Now select the correct processor family:
179     </p>
180    
181     <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
182     Processor type and features ---&gt;
183     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
184     (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
185     </pre>
186    
187 neysx 1.2 </body>
188     <body>
189    
190 neysx 1.1 <p>
191     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
192     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
193     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
194 neysx 1.2 file system</c>.
195     </p>
196    
197     </body>
198     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
199    
200 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
201     File systems ---&gt;
202     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
203     [*] /proc file system support
204     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
205    
206     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
207     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
208     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
209     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
210     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
211     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
212     </pre>
213    
214 neysx 1.2 </body>
215     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
216    
217     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
218     File systems ---&gt;
219     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
220     [*] /proc file system support
221     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
222    
223     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
224     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
225     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
226     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
227     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
228     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
229     </pre>
230    
231     </body>
232     <body>
233    
234 neysx 1.1 <p>
235     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
236     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
237     </p>
238    
239 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
240     Device Drivers ---&gt;
241     Networking Support ---&gt;
242     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
243     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
244     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
245     </pre>
246    
247     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
248 neysx 1.1 Device Drivers ---&gt;
249     Networking support ---&gt;
250     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
251     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
252     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
253     </pre>
254    
255     <p>
256     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
257 nightmorph 1.10 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
258     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
259 neysx 1.1 </p>
260    
261     <p>
262     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
263     ethernet card.
264     </p>
265    
266 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
267 neysx 1.1 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
268     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
269     </p>
270    
271 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
272     If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
273     should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
274     </p>
275    
276 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
277     Processor type and features ---&gt;
278     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
279     </pre>
280    
281     <note>
282     In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
283     </note>
284    
285     <p>
286     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
287     those as well:
288     </p>
289    
290     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
291 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
292 nightmorph 1.22 USB Support ---&gt;
293 neysx 1.2 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
294 neysx 1.1 </pre>
295    
296 neysx 1.2 </body>
297     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
298    
299 neysx 1.1 <p>
300 nightmorph 1.10 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
301 neysx 1.1 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
302     </p>
303    
304 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
305 neysx 1.1 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
306     PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
307     &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
308     <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
309     &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
310     [*] 32-bit CardBus support
311     <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
312     --- PC-card bridges
313     &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
314     &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
315     &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
316     &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
317     &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
318     </pre>
319    
320     <p>
321     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
322     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
323     </p>
324    
325     </body>
326     </subsection>
327     <subsection id="compiling">
328     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
329     <body>
330    
331     <p>
332     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
333     the configuration and start the compilation process:
334     </p>
335    
336 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
337 neysx 1.2 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
338     </pre>
339    
340 neysx 1.1 <p>
341     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
342     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
343     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
344 neysx 1.2 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
345     name and version of your kernel.
346 neysx 1.1 </p>
347    
348     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
349 neysx 1.2 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
350 neysx 1.1 </pre>
351    
352 neysx 1.4 <p>
353     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
354     </p>
355    
356 neysx 1.1 </body>
357     </subsection>
358     </section>
359     <section id="genkernel">
360     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
361     <body>
362    
363     <p>
364     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
365     script to configure your kernel for you.
366     </p>
367    
368     <p>
369     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
370     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
371     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
372     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
373     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
374     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
375     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
376     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
377     </p>
378    
379     <p>
380     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
381     </p>
382    
383     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
384     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
385     </pre>
386    
387 neysx 1.2 </body>
388     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
389    
390 neysx 1.1 <p>
391 nightmorph 1.10 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
392     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
393 neysx 1.1 </p>
394    
395     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
396     # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/x86/kernel-config-2.6</i>
397     </pre>
398    
399 neysx 1.2 </body>
400     <body>
401    
402 neysx 1.1 <p>
403     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
404     though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
405     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
406     </p>
407    
408     <p>
409     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
410     might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
411     all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
412     <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
413     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
414     </p>
415    
416     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
417     # <i>genkernel all</i>
418     </pre>
419    
420     <p>
421     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
422     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
423     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
424     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
425     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
426     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
427     before your "real" system starts up.
428     </p>
429    
430     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
431     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
432     </pre>
433    
434     </body>
435     </section>
436     <section id="kernel_modules">
437     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
438 nightmorph 1.22
439 neysx 1.1 <subsection>
440 nightmorph 1.22 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
441     </subsection>
442 neysx 1.1
443     </section>
444     </sections>

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