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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.30 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.29 2009/11/30 08:55:12 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.6 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 nightmorph 1.30 <version>7.2</version>
17 nightmorph 1.29 <date>2009-11-30</date>
18 neysx 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.11 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.1 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.11 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 neysx 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 neysx 1.11 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 neysx 1.1 </pre>
37    
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51     Guide</uri>.
52     </p>
53    
54 nightmorph 1.22 <p>
55     For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56 neysx 1.18 (kernel source patched for extra features).
57 neysx 1.1 </p>
58    
59     <p>
60 nightmorph 1.8 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 neysx 1.1 </p>
62    
63     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 nightmorph 1.8 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 neysx 1.1 </pre>
66    
67     <p>
68     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 neysx 1.2 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 neysx 1.1 </p>
73    
74     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 neysx 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 neysx 1.1 </pre>
78    
79     <p>
80 neysx 1.2 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83     the best way to optimize your environment.
84 neysx 1.1 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90     genkernel</uri> instead.
91     </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     </section>
96     <section id="manual">
97     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98     <subsection>
99     <title>Introduction</title>
100     <body>
101    
102     <p>
103     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106     </p>
107    
108     <p>
109     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118     </p>
119    
120     <p>
121     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p>
131     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133     properly without additional tweaks).
134     </p>
135    
136     </body>
137     </subsection>
138     <subsection>
139     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140     <body>
141    
142     <p>
143     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
144     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
145     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
146     </p>
147    
148 neysx 1.2 </body>
149     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
150    
151     <p>
152     We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
153     strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
154     notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
155     <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
156 nightmorph 1.19 requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package. Make sure you select IA32
157     Emulation if you want to be able to run 32-bit programs. Gentoo will install a
158     multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so you probably
159     want this option.
160 neysx 1.2 </p>
161    
162     <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
163     Processor type and features --->
164 nightmorph 1.27 [ ] Machine Check Exception
165     [ ] Intel MCE Features
166     [ ] AMD MCE Features
167 neysx 1.2 Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
168 nightmorph 1.27 ( ) Opteron/Athlon64/Hammer/K8
169     ( ) Intel P4 / older Netburst based Xeon
170     ( ) Core 2/newer Xeon
171 neysx 1.2 ( ) Generic-x86-64
172 nightmorph 1.19 Executable file formats / Emulations --->
173     [*] IA32 Emulation
174 neysx 1.2 </pre>
175    
176     </body>
177     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
178    
179 neysx 1.1 <p>
180     Now select the correct processor family:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
184     Processor type and features ---&gt;
185     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
186     (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
187     </pre>
188    
189 neysx 1.2 </body>
190     <body>
191    
192 neysx 1.1 <p>
193     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
194     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
195     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
196 neysx 1.2 file system</c>.
197     </p>
198    
199 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
200     File systems ---&gt;
201     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
202     [*] /proc file system support
203     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
204    
205     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
206     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
207     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
208     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
209     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
210     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
211     </pre>
212    
213     <p>
214     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
215     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
216     </p>
217    
218 nightmorph 1.25 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
219 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
220     Networking Support ---&gt;
221     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
222     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
223     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
224     </pre>
225    
226 neysx 1.1 <p>
227     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
228 nightmorph 1.10 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
229     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
230 neysx 1.1 </p>
231    
232     <p>
233     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
234     ethernet card.
235     </p>
236    
237 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
238 neysx 1.1 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
239     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
240     </p>
241    
242 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
243     If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
244     should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
245     </p>
246    
247 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
248     Processor type and features ---&gt;
249     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
250     </pre>
251    
252     <note>
253     In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
254     </note>
255    
256 nightmorph 1.24 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
257     If you have more than 4GB of RAM, you need to enable "High Memory Support
258     (64G)".
259     </p>
260    
261 neysx 1.1 <p>
262     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
263     those as well:
264     </p>
265    
266     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
267 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
268 nightmorph 1.26 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
269 neysx 1.2 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
270 neysx 1.1 </pre>
271    
272 neysx 1.2 </body>
273     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
274    
275 neysx 1.1 <p>
276 nightmorph 1.10 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
277 neysx 1.1 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
278     </p>
279    
280 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
281 neysx 1.1 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
282     PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
283     &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
284     <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
285     &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
286     [*] 32-bit CardBus support
287     <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
288     --- PC-card bridges
289     &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
290     &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
291     &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
292     &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
293     &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
294     </pre>
295    
296     <p>
297     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
298     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
299     </p>
300    
301     </body>
302     </subsection>
303     <subsection id="compiling">
304     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
305     <body>
306    
307     <p>
308     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
309     the configuration and start the compilation process:
310     </p>
311    
312 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
313 neysx 1.2 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
314     </pre>
315    
316 neysx 1.1 <p>
317     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
318     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
319     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
320 neysx 1.2 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
321     name and version of your kernel.
322 neysx 1.1 </p>
323    
324     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
325 neysx 1.2 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
326 neysx 1.1 </pre>
327    
328 neysx 1.4 <p>
329     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
330     </p>
331    
332 neysx 1.1 </body>
333     </subsection>
334     </section>
335     <section id="genkernel">
336     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
337     <body>
338    
339     <p>
340     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
341     script to configure your kernel for you.
342     </p>
343    
344     <p>
345     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
346     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
347     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
348     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
349     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
350     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
351     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
352     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
353     </p>
354    
355     <p>
356     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
357     </p>
358    
359     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
360     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
361     </pre>
362    
363 neysx 1.2 </body>
364     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
365    
366 neysx 1.1 <p>
367 nightmorph 1.10 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
368     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
369 neysx 1.1 </p>
370    
371     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
372 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86/kernel-config</i>
373 neysx 1.1 </pre>
374    
375 neysx 1.2 </body>
376 nightmorph 1.29 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
377    
378     <p>
379     Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
380     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
381     </p>
382    
383     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
384 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86_64/kernel-config</i>
385 nightmorph 1.29 </pre>
386    
387     </body>
388 neysx 1.2 <body>
389    
390 neysx 1.1 <p>
391     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
392     though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
393     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
394     </p>
395    
396     <p>
397     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
398     might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
399     all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
400     <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
401     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
402     </p>
403    
404     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
405     # <i>genkernel all</i>
406     </pre>
407    
408     <p>
409     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
410     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
411     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
412     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
413     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
414     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
415     before your "real" system starts up.
416     </p>
417    
418     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
419     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
420     </pre>
421    
422     </body>
423     </section>
424     <section id="kernel_modules">
425     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
426 nightmorph 1.22
427 neysx 1.1 <subsection>
428 nightmorph 1.22 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
429     </subsection>
430 neysx 1.1
431     </section>
432     </sections>

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