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Revision 1.32 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Jul 13 00:53:51 2010 UTC (4 years, 3 months ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.31: +5 -4 lines
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fix the handbook for bug 323381: update -march=nocona to core2, update MCE description in the kernel config, and add the new processor type for intel atom.

1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.32 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.31 2009/11/30 19:00:28 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.6 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 nightmorph 1.32 <version>7.4</version>
17     <date>2010-07-12</date>
18 neysx 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.11 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.1 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.11 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 neysx 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 neysx 1.11 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 neysx 1.1 </pre>
37    
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51     Guide</uri>.
52     </p>
53    
54 nightmorph 1.22 <p>
55     For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56 neysx 1.18 (kernel source patched for extra features).
57 neysx 1.1 </p>
58    
59     <p>
60 nightmorph 1.8 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 neysx 1.1 </p>
62    
63     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 nightmorph 1.8 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 neysx 1.1 </pre>
66    
67     <p>
68     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 neysx 1.2 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 neysx 1.1 </p>
73    
74     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 neysx 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 neysx 1.1 </pre>
78    
79     <p>
80 neysx 1.2 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83     the best way to optimize your environment.
84 neysx 1.1 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90     genkernel</uri> instead.
91     </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     </section>
96     <section id="manual">
97     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98     <subsection>
99     <title>Introduction</title>
100     <body>
101    
102     <p>
103     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106     </p>
107    
108     <p>
109     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118     </p>
119    
120     <p>
121     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p>
131     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133     properly without additional tweaks).
134     </p>
135    
136     </body>
137     </subsection>
138     <subsection>
139     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140     <body>
141    
142     <p>
143     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
144     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
145     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
146     </p>
147    
148 neysx 1.2 </body>
149     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
150    
151     <p>
152     We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
153     strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
154     notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
155     <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
156 nightmorph 1.19 requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package. Make sure you select IA32
157     Emulation if you want to be able to run 32-bit programs. Gentoo will install a
158     multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so you probably
159     want this option.
160 neysx 1.2 </p>
161    
162     <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
163     Processor type and features --->
164 nightmorph 1.32 [ ] Machine Check / overheating reporting
165 nightmorph 1.27 [ ] Intel MCE Features
166     [ ] AMD MCE Features
167 neysx 1.2 Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
168 nightmorph 1.27 ( ) Opteron/Athlon64/Hammer/K8
169     ( ) Intel P4 / older Netburst based Xeon
170     ( ) Core 2/newer Xeon
171 nightmorph 1.32 ( ) Intel Atom
172 neysx 1.2 ( ) Generic-x86-64
173 nightmorph 1.19 Executable file formats / Emulations --->
174     [*] IA32 Emulation
175 neysx 1.2 </pre>
176    
177     </body>
178     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
179    
180 neysx 1.1 <p>
181     Now select the correct processor family:
182     </p>
183    
184     <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
185     Processor type and features ---&gt;
186     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
187     (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
188     </pre>
189    
190 neysx 1.2 </body>
191     <body>
192    
193 neysx 1.1 <p>
194     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
195     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
196     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
197 neysx 1.2 file system</c>.
198     </p>
199    
200 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
201     File systems ---&gt;
202     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
203     [*] /proc file system support
204     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
205    
206     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
207     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
208     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
209     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
210     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
211     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
212     </pre>
213    
214     <p>
215     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
216     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
217     </p>
218    
219 nightmorph 1.25 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
220 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
221     Networking Support ---&gt;
222     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
223     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
224     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
225     </pre>
226    
227 neysx 1.1 <p>
228     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
229 nightmorph 1.10 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
230     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
231 neysx 1.1 </p>
232    
233     <p>
234     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
235     ethernet card.
236     </p>
237    
238 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
239 neysx 1.1 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
240     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
241     </p>
242    
243 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
244     If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
245     should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
246     </p>
247    
248 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
249     Processor type and features ---&gt;
250     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
251     </pre>
252    
253     <note>
254     In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
255     </note>
256    
257 nightmorph 1.24 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
258     If you have more than 4GB of RAM, you need to enable "High Memory Support
259     (64G)".
260     </p>
261    
262 neysx 1.1 <p>
263     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
264     those as well:
265     </p>
266    
267     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
268 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
269 nightmorph 1.26 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
270 neysx 1.2 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
271 neysx 1.1 </pre>
272    
273 neysx 1.2 </body>
274     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
275    
276 neysx 1.1 <p>
277 nightmorph 1.10 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
278 neysx 1.1 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
279     </p>
280    
281 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
282 neysx 1.1 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
283     PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
284     &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
285     <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
286     &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
287     [*] 32-bit CardBus support
288     <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
289     --- PC-card bridges
290     &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
291     &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
292     &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
293     &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
294     &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
295     </pre>
296    
297     <p>
298     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
299     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
300     </p>
301    
302     </body>
303     </subsection>
304     <subsection id="compiling">
305     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
306     <body>
307    
308     <p>
309     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
310     the configuration and start the compilation process:
311     </p>
312    
313 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
314 neysx 1.2 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
315     </pre>
316    
317 neysx 1.1 <p>
318     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
319     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
320     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
321 neysx 1.2 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
322     name and version of your kernel.
323 neysx 1.1 </p>
324    
325     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
326 neysx 1.2 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
327 neysx 1.1 </pre>
328    
329 neysx 1.4 <p>
330     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
331     </p>
332    
333 neysx 1.1 </body>
334     </subsection>
335     </section>
336     <section id="genkernel">
337     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
338     <body>
339    
340     <p>
341     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
342     script to configure your kernel for you.
343     </p>
344    
345     <p>
346     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
347     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
348     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
349     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
350     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
351     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
352     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
353     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
354     </p>
355    
356     <p>
357     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
358     </p>
359    
360     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
361     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
362     </pre>
363    
364     <p>
365 nightmorph 1.10 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
366     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
367 neysx 1.1 </p>
368    
369 nightmorph 1.31 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'" caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
370 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86/kernel-config</i>
371 neysx 1.1 </pre>
372    
373 nightmorph 1.31 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
374 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86_64/kernel-config</i>
375 nightmorph 1.29 </pre>
376    
377 neysx 1.1 <p>
378     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
379     though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
380     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
381     </p>
382    
383     <p>
384     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
385     might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
386     all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
387     <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
388     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
389     </p>
390    
391     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
392     # <i>genkernel all</i>
393     </pre>
394    
395     <p>
396     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
397     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
398     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
399     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
400     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
401     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
402     before your "real" system starts up.
403     </p>
404    
405     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
406     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
407     </pre>
408    
409     </body>
410     </section>
411     <section id="kernel_modules">
412     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
413 nightmorph 1.22
414 neysx 1.1 <subsection>
415 nightmorph 1.22 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
416     </subsection>
417 neysx 1.1
418     </section>
419     </sections>

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