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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.35 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.34 2010/07/19 23:59:58 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.6 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 nightmorph 1.33 <version>7.5</version>
17     <date>2010-07-17</date>
18 neysx 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.11 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.1 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.11 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 neysx 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 neysx 1.11 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 neysx 1.1 </pre>
37    
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51     Guide</uri>.
52     </p>
53    
54 nightmorph 1.22 <p>
55     For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56 neysx 1.18 (kernel source patched for extra features).
57 neysx 1.1 </p>
58    
59     <p>
60 nightmorph 1.8 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 neysx 1.1 </p>
62    
63     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 nightmorph 1.8 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 neysx 1.1 </pre>
66    
67     <p>
68     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 neysx 1.2 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 neysx 1.1 </p>
73    
74     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 neysx 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 neysx 1.1 </pre>
78    
79     <p>
80 neysx 1.2 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83     the best way to optimize your environment.
84 neysx 1.1 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90     genkernel</uri> instead.
91     </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     </section>
96     <section id="manual">
97     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98     <subsection>
99     <title>Introduction</title>
100     <body>
101    
102     <p>
103     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106     </p>
107    
108     <p>
109     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118     </p>
119    
120     <p>
121     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p>
131     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133     properly without additional tweaks).
134     </p>
135    
136     </body>
137     </subsection>
138     <subsection>
139     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140     <body>
141    
142     <p>
143     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
144     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
145     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
146     </p>
147    
148 neysx 1.2 </body>
149     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
150    
151     <p>
152     We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
153     strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
154     notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
155     <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
156 nightmorph 1.19 requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package. Make sure you select IA32
157     Emulation if you want to be able to run 32-bit programs. Gentoo will install a
158 nightmorph 1.33 multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so this option is
159     required.
160 neysx 1.2 </p>
161    
162 nightmorph 1.33 <note>
163     If you plan to use a non-multilib profile (for a pure 64-bit system), then you
164     don't have to select IA32 Emulation support. However, you'll also need to follow
165     the <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=6#doc_chap2_sect2">instructions</uri> for
166 nightmorph 1.35 switching to a <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-amd64-faq.xml">non-multilib
167 nightmorph 1.33 profile</uri>, as well as choosing the correct <uri
168     link="?part=1&amp;chap=10#doc_chap2_sect2">bootloader</uri>.
169     </note>
170    
171 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
172     Processor type and features --->
173 nightmorph 1.32 [ ] Machine Check / overheating reporting
174 nightmorph 1.27 [ ] Intel MCE Features
175     [ ] AMD MCE Features
176 neysx 1.2 Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
177 nightmorph 1.27 ( ) Opteron/Athlon64/Hammer/K8
178     ( ) Intel P4 / older Netburst based Xeon
179     ( ) Core 2/newer Xeon
180 nightmorph 1.32 ( ) Intel Atom
181 neysx 1.2 ( ) Generic-x86-64
182 nightmorph 1.19 Executable file formats / Emulations --->
183     [*] IA32 Emulation
184 neysx 1.2 </pre>
185    
186     </body>
187     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
188    
189 neysx 1.1 <p>
190     Now select the correct processor family:
191     </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
194     Processor type and features ---&gt;
195     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
196     (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
197     </pre>
198    
199 neysx 1.2 </body>
200     <body>
201    
202 neysx 1.1 <p>
203     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
204     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
205     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
206 neysx 1.2 file system</c>.
207     </p>
208    
209 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
210     File systems ---&gt;
211     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
212     [*] /proc file system support
213     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
214    
215     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
216     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
217     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
218     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
219     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
220     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
221     </pre>
222    
223     <p>
224     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
225     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
226     </p>
227    
228 nightmorph 1.25 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
229 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
230     Networking Support ---&gt;
231     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
232     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
233     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
234     </pre>
235    
236 neysx 1.1 <p>
237     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
238 nightmorph 1.10 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
239     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
240 neysx 1.1 </p>
241    
242     <p>
243     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
244     ethernet card.
245     </p>
246    
247 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
248 neysx 1.1 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
249     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
250     </p>
251    
252 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
253     If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
254     should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
255     </p>
256    
257 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
258     Processor type and features ---&gt;
259     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
260     </pre>
261    
262     <note>
263     In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
264     </note>
265    
266 nightmorph 1.24 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
267     If you have more than 4GB of RAM, you need to enable "High Memory Support
268     (64G)".
269     </p>
270    
271 neysx 1.1 <p>
272     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
273     those as well:
274     </p>
275    
276     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
277 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
278 nightmorph 1.26 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
279 neysx 1.2 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
280 neysx 1.1 </pre>
281    
282 neysx 1.2 </body>
283     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
284    
285 neysx 1.1 <p>
286 nightmorph 1.10 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
287 neysx 1.1 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
288     </p>
289    
290 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
291 neysx 1.1 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
292     PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
293     &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
294     <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
295     &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
296     [*] 32-bit CardBus support
297     <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
298     --- PC-card bridges
299     &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
300     &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
301     &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
302     &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
303     &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
304     </pre>
305    
306     <p>
307     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
308     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
309     </p>
310    
311     </body>
312     </subsection>
313     <subsection id="compiling">
314     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
315     <body>
316    
317     <p>
318     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
319     the configuration and start the compilation process:
320     </p>
321    
322 nightmorph 1.10 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
323 neysx 1.2 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
324     </pre>
325    
326 neysx 1.1 <p>
327     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
328     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
329     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
330 neysx 1.2 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
331     name and version of your kernel.
332 neysx 1.1 </p>
333    
334     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
335 neysx 1.2 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
336 neysx 1.1 </pre>
337    
338 neysx 1.4 <p>
339     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
340     </p>
341    
342 neysx 1.1 </body>
343     </subsection>
344     </section>
345     <section id="genkernel">
346     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
347     <body>
348    
349     <p>
350     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
351     script to configure your kernel for you.
352     </p>
353    
354     <p>
355     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
356     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
357     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
358     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
359     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
360     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
361     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
362     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
363     </p>
364    
365     <p>
366     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
367     </p>
368    
369     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
370     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
371     </pre>
372    
373     <p>
374 nightmorph 1.10 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
375     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
376 neysx 1.1 </p>
377    
378 nightmorph 1.31 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'" caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
379 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86/kernel-config</i>
380 neysx 1.1 </pre>
381    
382 nightmorph 1.31 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
383 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86_64/kernel-config</i>
384 nightmorph 1.29 </pre>
385    
386 neysx 1.1 <p>
387     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
388     though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
389     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
390     </p>
391    
392     <p>
393     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
394     might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
395     all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
396     <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
397 nightmorph 1.34 <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as arguments as well.
398 neysx 1.1 </p>
399    
400     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
401     # <i>genkernel all</i>
402     </pre>
403    
404     <p>
405     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
406     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
407     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
408     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
409     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
410     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
411     before your "real" system starts up.
412     </p>
413    
414     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
415     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
416     </pre>
417    
418     </body>
419     </section>
420     <section id="kernel_modules">
421     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
422 nightmorph 1.22
423 neysx 1.1 <subsection>
424 nightmorph 1.22 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
425     </subsection>
426 neysx 1.1
427     </section>
428     </sections>

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