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Revision 1.7 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Dec 6 19:59:09 2006 UTC (7 years, 4 months ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.6: +9 -3 lines
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added udev/coldplug blurb to the networked handbooks (no point if on networkless, as they have old portage snapshots) for bug 157346

1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.6 2006/10/28 09:17:55 neysx Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.6 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 nightmorph 1.7 <version>4.1</version>
17     <date>2006-12-06</date>
18 neysx 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28     indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
29     </p>
30    
31     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
32     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
33     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
34     # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
35     </pre>
36    
37     </body>
38     </section>
39     <section>
40     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
41     <subsection>
42     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
43     <body>
44    
45     <p>
46     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
47     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
48     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
49     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
50     Guide</uri>.
51     </p>
52    
53 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
54 neysx 1.1 For x86-based systems we have, amongst other kernels, <c>vanilla-sources</c>
55     (the default kernel source as developed by the linux-kernel developers),
56     <c>gentoo-sources</c> (kernel source patched with performance-enhancing
57     features), ...
58     </p>
59    
60 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
61     For AMD64-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> (kernel v2.6 source
62     patched with amd64 specific fixes for stability, performance and hardware
63     support).
64     </p>
65    
66 neysx 1.1 <p>
67     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>. The
68     <c>USE="-doc"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 or other
69     dependencies at this point. <c>USE="symlink"</c> is not necessary for a new
70     install, but ensures proper creation of the <path>/usr/src/linux</path>
71     symlink.
72     </p>
73    
74     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
75     # <i>USE="-doc symlink" emerge gentoo-sources</i>
76     </pre>
77    
78     <p>
79     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
80     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
81 neysx 1.2 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
82     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
83 neysx 1.1 </p>
84    
85     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
86     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
87 neysx 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
88 neysx 1.1 </pre>
89    
90     <p>
91 neysx 1.2 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
92     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
93     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
94     the best way to optimize your environment.
95 neysx 1.1 </p>
96    
97     <p>
98     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
99     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
100     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
101     genkernel</uri> instead.
102     </p>
103    
104     </body>
105     </subsection>
106     </section>
107     <section id="manual">
108     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
109     <subsection>
110     <title>Introduction</title>
111     <body>
112    
113     <p>
114     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
115     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
116     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
117     </p>
118    
119     <p>
120     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
121     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
122     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
123     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
124     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
125     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
126     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
127     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
128     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
129     </p>
130    
131     <p>
132     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
133     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
134     </p>
135    
136     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
137     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
138     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
139     </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
143     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
144     properly without additional tweaks).
145     </p>
146    
147     </body>
148     </subsection>
149     <subsection>
150     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
151     <body>
152    
153     <p>
154     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
155     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
156     </p>
157    
158 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
159 neysx 1.1 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
160     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
161     </pre>
162    
163     <p>
164     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
165     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
166     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
167     </p>
168    
169 neysx 1.2 </body>
170     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
171    
172     <p>
173     We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
174     strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
175     notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
176     <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
177     requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package.
178     </p>
179    
180     <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
181     Processor type and features --->
182     [ ] Intel MCE Features
183     [ ] AMD MCE Features
184     Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
185     ( ) AMD-Opteron/Athlon64
186     ( ) Intel EM64T
187     ( ) Generic-x86-64
188     </pre>
189    
190     </body>
191     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
192    
193 neysx 1.1 <p>
194     Now select the correct processor family:
195     </p>
196    
197     <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
198     Processor type and features ---&gt;
199     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
200     (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
201     </pre>
202    
203 neysx 1.2 </body>
204     <body>
205    
206 neysx 1.1 <p>
207     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
208     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
209     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
210 neysx 1.2 file system</c>.
211     </p>
212    
213     </body>
214     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
215    
216     <p>
217     If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you need to select <c>/dev file
218 neysx 1.1 system</c> as 2.4 kernels do not support <c>udev</c>.
219     </p>
220    
221     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
222     <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
223     File systems ---&gt;
224     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
225     [*] /proc file system support
226     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
227     [*] automatically mount /dev at boot
228     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
229    
230     <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
231     File systems ---&gt;
232     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
233     [*] /proc file system support
234     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
235    
236     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
237     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
238     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
239     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
240     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
241     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
242     </pre>
243    
244     <p>
245 neysx 1.2 If your BIOS can't handle large hard drives and you jumpered the hard drive to
246     report a limited size you have to enable the following option to gain access to
247     your whole hard drive:
248 neysx 1.1 </p>
249    
250     <pre caption="Selecting autogeometry resizing support">
251     <comment>(2.4.x kernel only)</comment>
252     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
253     IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block devices ---&gt;
254     &lt;*&gt; Include IDE/ATA-2 DISK support
255     [ ] Use multi-mode by default
256     [*] Auto-Geometry Resizing support
257     </pre>
258    
259 neysx 1.2 </body>
260     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
261    
262     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
263     File systems ---&gt;
264     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
265     [*] /proc file system support
266     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
267    
268     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
269     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
270     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
271     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
272     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
273     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
274     </pre>
275    
276     </body>
277     <body>
278    
279 neysx 1.1 <p>
280     Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
281     </p>
282    
283     <pre caption="Activating DMA">
284     Device Drivers ---&gt;
285     ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
286     [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
287     [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
288     </pre>
289    
290     <p>
291     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
292     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
293     </p>
294    
295 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
296     Device Drivers ---&gt;
297     Networking Support ---&gt;
298     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
299     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
300     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
301     </pre>
302    
303     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
304 neysx 1.1 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
305     Network device support ---&gt;
306     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
307     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
308     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
309    
310     <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
311     Device Drivers ---&gt;
312     Networking support ---&gt;
313     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
314     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
315     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
316     </pre>
317    
318     <p>
319     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
320     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
321     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
322     </p>
323    
324     <p>
325     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
326     ethernet card.
327     </p>
328    
329 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
330 neysx 1.1 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
331     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
332     </p>
333    
334 neysx 1.2 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
335     If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
336     should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
337     </p>
338    
339 neysx 1.1 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
340     Processor type and features ---&gt;
341     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
342     </pre>
343    
344     <note>
345     In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
346     </note>
347    
348     <p>
349     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
350     those as well:
351     </p>
352    
353     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
354 neysx 1.2 Device Drivers ---&gt;
355     USB Support ---&gt;
356     &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
357 neysx 1.1 </pre>
358    
359 neysx 1.2 </body>
360     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
361    
362 neysx 1.1 <p>
363     Laptop-users who want PCMCIA support should <e>not</e> use the PCMCIA drivers if
364     they choose to use a 2.4 kernel. More recent drivers are available through the
365     <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package which will be installed later on. 2.6-kernel users
366     however should use the PCMCIA drivers from the kernel.
367     </p>
368    
369     <p>
370     Besides compiling in PCMCIA support in the 2.6 kernel, don't forget to enable
371     support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
372     </p>
373    
374     <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support for 2.6 kernels">
375     Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
376     PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
377     &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
378     <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
379     &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
380     [*] 32-bit CardBus support
381     <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
382     --- PC-card bridges
383     &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
384     &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
385     &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
386     &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
387     &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
388     </pre>
389    
390     <p>
391     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
392     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
393     </p>
394    
395     </body>
396     </subsection>
397     <subsection id="compiling">
398     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
399     <body>
400    
401     <p>
402     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
403     the configuration and start the compilation process:
404     </p>
405    
406 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
407 neysx 1.1 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
408     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
409    
410     <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
411     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
412     </pre>
413    
414 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
415     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
416     </pre>
417    
418 neysx 1.1 <p>
419     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
420     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
421     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
422 neysx 1.2 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
423     name and version of your kernel.
424 neysx 1.1 </p>
425    
426     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
427 neysx 1.2 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
428 neysx 1.1 </pre>
429    
430 neysx 1.4 <p>
431     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
432     </p>
433    
434 neysx 1.1 </body>
435     </subsection>
436     </section>
437     <section id="genkernel">
438     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
439     <body>
440    
441     <p>
442     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
443     script to configure your kernel for you.
444     </p>
445    
446     <p>
447     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
448     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
449     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
450     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
451     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
452     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
453     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
454     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
455     </p>
456    
457     <p>
458     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
459     </p>
460    
461     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
462     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
463     </pre>
464    
465 neysx 1.2 </body>
466     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
467    
468 neysx 1.1 <p>
469     Next, if you are going to configure a 2.6 kernel, copy over the kernel
470     configuration used by the Installation CD to the location where genkernel
471     looks for the default kernel configuration:
472     </p>
473    
474     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
475     <comment>(Only do this if you are going to configure a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
476     # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/x86/kernel-config-2.6</i>
477     </pre>
478    
479 neysx 1.2 </body>
480     <body>
481    
482 neysx 1.1 <p>
483     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
484     though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
485     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
486     </p>
487    
488     <p>
489     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
490     might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
491     all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
492     <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
493     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
494     </p>
495    
496     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
497     # <i>genkernel all</i>
498     </pre>
499    
500     <p>
501     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
502     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
503     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
504     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
505     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
506     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
507     before your "real" system starts up.
508     </p>
509    
510     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
511     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
512     </pre>
513    
514     <p>
515     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
516     Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
517     hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
518     everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
519     </p>
520    
521     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
522     # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
523     # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
524     </pre>
525    
526 nightmorph 1.7 <note>
527     You no longer need to emerge <c>coldplug</c> if you're using <c>udev</c> version
528     103 and higher. If you receive a message that <c>udev</c> blocks <c>coldplug</c>
529     from being installed, then you don't need to install <c>coldplug</c>.
530     </note>
531    
532 neysx 1.1 </body>
533     </section>
534     <section id="kernel_modules">
535     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
536     <subsection>
537     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
538     <body>
539    
540 neysx 1.2 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
541     If you chose a kernel 2.4, replace occurrences of <c>2.6</c> with <c>2.4</c> in
542     this section.
543     </note>
544    
545 neysx 1.1 <p>
546 neysx 1.2 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
547     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
548     the modules too if you want.
549 neysx 1.1 </p>
550    
551     <p>
552     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
553 neysx 1.2 forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
554     the kernel you just compiled:
555 neysx 1.1 </p>
556    
557     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
558 neysx 1.2 # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
559 neysx 1.1 </pre>
560    
561     <p>
562     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
563 neysx 1.2 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
564 neysx 1.1 </p>
565    
566 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
567     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
568 neysx 1.1 </pre>
569    
570 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
571 neysx 1.1 3c59x
572     </pre>
573    
574     <p>
575     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
576     your System</uri>.
577     </p>
578    
579     </body>
580     </subsection>
581     </section>
582     </sections>

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