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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86-kernel.xml,v 1.62 2006/07/21 09:13:28 rane Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>3.13</version>
12 <date>2006-07-20</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 </body>
33 </section>
34 <section>
35 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
42 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45 Guide</uri>.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 For x86-based systems we have, amongst other kernels, <c>vanilla-sources</c>
50 (the default kernel source as developed by the linux-kernel developers),
51 <c>gentoo-sources</c> (kernel source patched with performance-enhancing
52 features), ...
53 </p>
54
55 <p>
56 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>. The
57 <c>USE="-doc"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 or other
58 dependencies at this point. <c>USE="symlink"</c> is not necessary for a new
59 install, but ensures proper creation of the <path>/usr/src/linux</path>
60 symlink.
61 </p>
62
63 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 # <i>USE="-doc symlink" emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 </pre>
66
67 <p>
68 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.12-r10</c>. Your version may be
71 different, so keep this in mind.
72 </p>
73
74 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.12-gentoo-r10
77 </pre>
78
79 <p>
80 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
81 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
82 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as
83 it is the best way to optimize your environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90 genkernel</uri> instead.
91 </p>
92
93 </body>
94 </subsection>
95 </section>
96 <section id="manual">
97 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98 <subsection>
99 <title>Introduction</title>
100 <body>
101
102 <p>
103 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106 </p>
107
108 <p>
109 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133 properly without additional tweaks).
134 </p>
135
136 </body>
137 </subsection>
138 <subsection>
139 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140 <body>
141
142 <p>
143 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
144 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
145 </p>
146
147 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
148 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
150 </pre>
151
152 <p>
153 Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
154 SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
155 otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 Now select the correct processor family:
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
163 Processor type and features ---&gt;
164 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
165 (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
166 </pre>
167
168 <p>
169 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
170 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
171 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
172 file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you need to select <c>/dev file
173 system</c> as 2.4 kernels do not support <c>udev</c>.
174 </p>
175
176 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
177 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
178 File systems ---&gt;
179 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
180 [*] /proc file system support
181 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
182 [*] automatically mount /dev at boot
183 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
184
185 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
186 File systems ---&gt;
187 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
188 [*] /proc file system support
189 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
190
191 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
192 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
193 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
194 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
195 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
196 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
197 </pre>
198
199 <p>
200 If your BIOS can't handle large harddrives and you jumpered the harddrive to
201 report a limited size you have to enable the following option to gain access
202 to your whole harddrive:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Selecting autogeometry resizing support">
206 <comment>(2.4.x kernel only)</comment>
207 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
208 IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block devices ---&gt;
209 &lt;*&gt; Include IDE/ATA-2 DISK support
210 [ ] Use multi-mode by default
211 [*] Auto-Geometry Resizing support
212 </pre>
213
214 <p>
215 Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
216 </p>
217
218 <pre caption="Activating DMA">
219 Device Drivers ---&gt;
220 ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
221 [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
222 [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
223 </pre>
224
225 <p>
226 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
227 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
228 </p>
229
230 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
231 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
232 Network device support ---&gt;
233 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
234 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
235 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
236
237 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
238 Device Drivers ---&gt;
239 Networking support ---&gt;
240 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
241 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
242 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
243 </pre>
244
245 <p>
246 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
247 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
248 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
249 </p>
250
251 <p>
252 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
253 ethernet card.
254 </p>
255
256 <p>
257 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
258 multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
259 </p>
260
261 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
262 Processor type and features ---&gt;
263 [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
264 </pre>
265
266 <note>
267 In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
268 </note>
269
270 <p>
271 If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
272 those as well:
273 </p>
274
275 <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
276 USB Support ---&gt;
277 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
278 </pre>
279
280 <p>
281 Laptop-users who want PCMCIA support should <e>not</e> use the PCMCIA drivers if
282 they choose to use a 2.4 kernel. More recent drivers are available through the
283 <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package which will be installed later on. 2.6-kernel users
284 however should use the PCMCIA drivers from the kernel.
285 </p>
286
287 <p>
288 Besides compiling in PCMCIA support in the 2.6 kernel, don't forget to enable
289 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
290 </p>
291
292 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support for 2.6 kernels">
293 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
294 PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
295 &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
296 <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
297 &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
298 [*] 32-bit CardBus support
299 <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
300 --- PC-card bridges
301 &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
302 &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
303 &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
304 &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
305 &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
306 </pre>
307
308 <p>
309 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
310 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
311 </p>
312
313 </body>
314 </subsection>
315 <subsection id="compiling">
316 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
321 the configuration and start the compilation process:
322 </p>
323
324 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
325 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
326 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
327
328 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
329 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
330 </pre>
331
332 <p>
333 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
334 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
335 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
336 bootloader. Remember to replace <path>&lt;kernel-version&gt;</path> with the name and
337 version of your kernel.
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
341 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
346 </p>
347
348 </body>
349 </subsection>
350 </section>
351 <section id="genkernel">
352 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
353 <body>
354
355 <p>
356 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
357 script to configure your kernel for you.
358 </p>
359
360 <p>
361 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
362 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
363 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
364 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
365 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
366 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
367 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
368 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
373 </p>
374
375 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
376 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
377 </pre>
378
379 <p>
380 Next, if you are going to configure a 2.6 kernel, copy over the kernel
381 configuration used by the Installation CD to the location where genkernel
382 looks for the default kernel configuration:
383 </p>
384
385 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
386 <comment>(Only do this if you are going to configure a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
387 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/x86/kernel-config-2.6</i>
388 </pre>
389
390 <p>
391 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
392 though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
393 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
394 </p>
395
396 <p>
397 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
398 might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
399 all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
400 <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
401 <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
402 </p>
403
404 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
405 # <i>genkernel all</i>
406 </pre>
407
408 <p>
409 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
410 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
411 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
412 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
413 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
414 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
415 before your "real" system starts up.
416 </p>
417
418 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
419 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
420 </pre>
421
422 <p>
423 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
424 Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
425 hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
426 everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
430 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
431 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
432 </pre>
433
434 </body>
435 </section>
436 <section id="kernel_modules">
437 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
438 <subsection>
439 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
440 <body>
441
442 <p>
443 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
444 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
445 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
446 </p>
447
448 <p>
449 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
450 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
451 just compiled:
452 </p>
453
454 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
455 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
456 </pre>
457
458 <p>
459 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
460 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
461 name in it.
462 </p>
463
464 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
465 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
466 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
467 </pre>
468
469 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
470 3c59x
471 </pre>
472
473 <p>
474 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
475 your System</uri>.
476 </p>
477
478 </body>
479 </subsection>
480 </section>
481 </sections>

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