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Sun May 20 04:16:25 2007 UTC (7 years, 7 months ago) by nightmorph
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for safety's sake, needed to move the conf.d/clock TIMEZONE edit to immediately before compiling a kernel. users still run into the warning message if it's left at the end, before rebooting. fixes http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-560322.html and other reports.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.11 2007/05/15 13:07:41 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13 explains how to configure your kernel.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>5.2</version>
17 <date>2007-05-19</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Timezone</title>
21 <body>
22
23 <p>
24 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29 GMT+8.
30 </p>
31
32 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 </pre>
37
38 <p>
39 Next, define the timezone you just used in <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> so
40 that further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
41 <path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically.
42 </p>
43
44 <pre caption="Setting the TIMEZONE variable in /etc/conf.d/clock">
45 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
46 TIMEZONE="GMT"
47 </pre>
48
49 </body>
50 </section>
51 <section>
52 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
53 <subsection>
54 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
55 <body>
56
57 <p>
58 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
59 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
60 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
61 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
62 Guide</uri>.
63 </p>
64
65 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
66 For x86-based systems we have, amongst other kernels, <c>gentoo-sources</c>
67 (kernel source patched with performance-enhancing features).
68 </p>
69
70 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
71 For AMD64-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> (kernel source patched
72 with amd64 specific fixes for stability, performance and hardware support).
73 </p>
74
75 <p>
76 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
77 </p>
78
79 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
80 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
81 </pre>
82
83 <p>
84 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
85 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
86 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
87 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
88 </p>
89
90 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
91 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
92 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
93 </pre>
94
95 <p>
96 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
97 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
98 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
99 the best way to optimize your environment.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
104 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
105 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
106 genkernel</uri> instead.
107 </p>
108
109 </body>
110 </subsection>
111 </section>
112 <section id="manual">
113 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
114 <subsection>
115 <title>Introduction</title>
116 <body>
117
118 <p>
119 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
120 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
121 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
126 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
127 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
128 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
129 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
130 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
131 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
132 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
133 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
138 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
139 </p>
140
141 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
142 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
143 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
144 </pre>
145
146 <p>
147 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
148 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
149 properly without additional tweaks).
150 </p>
151
152 </body>
153 </subsection>
154 <subsection>
155 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
156 <body>
157
158 <p>
159 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
160 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
164 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
165 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
166 </pre>
167
168 <p>
169 Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
170 SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
171 otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
172 </p>
173
174 </body>
175 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
176
177 <p>
178 We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
179 strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
180 notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
181 <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
182 requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package.
183 </p>
184
185 <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
186 Processor type and features --->
187 [ ] Intel MCE Features
188 [ ] AMD MCE Features
189 Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
190 ( ) AMD-Opteron/Athlon64
191 ( ) Intel EM64T
192 ( ) Generic-x86-64
193 </pre>
194
195 </body>
196 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
197
198 <p>
199 Now select the correct processor family:
200 </p>
201
202 <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
203 Processor type and features ---&gt;
204 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
205 (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
206 </pre>
207
208 </body>
209 <body>
210
211 <p>
212 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
213 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
214 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
215 file system</c>.
216 </p>
217
218 </body>
219 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
220
221 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
222 File systems ---&gt;
223 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
224 [*] /proc file system support
225 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
226
227 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
228 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
229 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
230 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
231 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
232 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
233 </pre>
234
235 </body>
236 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
237
238 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
239 File systems ---&gt;
240 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
241 [*] /proc file system support
242 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
243
244 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
245 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
246 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
247 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
248 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
249 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
250 </pre>
251
252 </body>
253 <body>
254
255 <p>
256 Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
257 </p>
258
259 <pre caption="Activating DMA">
260 Device Drivers ---&gt;
261 ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
262 [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
263 [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
264 </pre>
265
266 <p>
267 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
268 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
269 </p>
270
271 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
272 Device Drivers ---&gt;
273 Networking Support ---&gt;
274 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
275 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
276 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
277 </pre>
278
279 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
280 Device Drivers ---&gt;
281 Networking support ---&gt;
282 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
283 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
284 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
285 </pre>
286
287 <p>
288 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
289 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
290 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
291 </p>
292
293 <p>
294 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
295 ethernet card.
296 </p>
297
298 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
299 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
300 multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
301 </p>
302
303 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
304 If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
305 should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
306 </p>
307
308 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
309 Processor type and features ---&gt;
310 [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
311 </pre>
312
313 <note>
314 In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
315 </note>
316
317 <p>
318 If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
319 those as well:
320 </p>
321
322 <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
323 Device Drivers ---&gt;
324 USB Support ---&gt;
325 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
326 </pre>
327
328 </body>
329 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
330
331 <p>
332 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
333 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
334 </p>
335
336 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
337 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
338 PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
339 &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
340 <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
341 &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
342 [*] 32-bit CardBus support
343 <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
344 --- PC-card bridges
345 &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
346 &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
347 &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
348 &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
349 &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
350 </pre>
351
352 <p>
353 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
354 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
355 </p>
356
357 </body>
358 </subsection>
359 <subsection id="compiling">
360 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
361 <body>
362
363 <p>
364 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
365 the configuration and start the compilation process:
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
369 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
370 </pre>
371
372 <p>
373 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
374 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
375 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
376 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
377 name and version of your kernel.
378 </p>
379
380 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
381 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
382 </pre>
383
384 <p>
385 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
386 </p>
387
388 </body>
389 </subsection>
390 </section>
391 <section id="genkernel">
392 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
393 <body>
394
395 <p>
396 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
397 script to configure your kernel for you.
398 </p>
399
400 <p>
401 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
402 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
403 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
404 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
405 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
406 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
407 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
408 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
409 </p>
410
411 <p>
412 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
413 </p>
414
415 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
416 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
417 </pre>
418
419 </body>
420 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
421
422 <p>
423 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
424 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
425 </p>
426
427 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
428 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/x86/kernel-config-2.6</i>
429 </pre>
430
431 </body>
432 <body>
433
434 <p>
435 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
436 though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
437 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
438 </p>
439
440 <p>
441 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
442 might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
443 all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
444 <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
445 <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
446 </p>
447
448 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
449 # <i>genkernel all</i>
450 </pre>
451
452 <p>
453 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
454 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
455 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
456 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
457 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
458 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
459 before your "real" system starts up.
460 </p>
461
462 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
463 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
464 </pre>
465
466 </body>
467 </section>
468 <section id="kernel_modules">
469 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
470 <subsection>
471 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
472 <body>
473
474 <p>
475 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
476 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
477 the modules too if you want.
478 </p>
479
480 <p>
481 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
482 forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
483 the kernel you just compiled:
484 </p>
485
486 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
487 # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
488 </pre>
489
490 <p>
491 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
492 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
493 </p>
494
495 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
496 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
497 </pre>
498
499 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
500 3c59x
501 </pre>
502
503 <p>
504 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
505 your System</uri>.
506 </p>
507
508 </body>
509 </subsection>
510 </section>
511 </sections>

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