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Revision 1.27 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Thu Jul 30 20:13:19 2009 UTC (5 years, 1 month ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.26: +9 -7 lines
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update MCE kernel config, bug 279683. also updated Processor Family config for new options.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.26 2008/06/22 01:13:03 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13 explains how to configure your kernel.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>6.5</version>
17 <date>2009-07-30</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Timezone</title>
21 <body>
22
23 <p>
24 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29 GMT+8.
30 </p>
31
32 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 </pre>
37
38 </body>
39 </section>
40 <section>
41 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42 <subsection>
43 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44 <body>
45
46 <p>
47 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51 Guide</uri>.
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56 (kernel source patched for extra features).
57 </p>
58
59 <p>
60 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 </p>
62
63 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 </pre>
66
67 <p>
68 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 </p>
73
74 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 </pre>
78
79 <p>
80 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83 the best way to optimize your environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90 genkernel</uri> instead.
91 </p>
92
93 </body>
94 </subsection>
95 </section>
96 <section id="manual">
97 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98 <subsection>
99 <title>Introduction</title>
100 <body>
101
102 <p>
103 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106 </p>
107
108 <p>
109 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133 properly without additional tweaks).
134 </p>
135
136 </body>
137 </subsection>
138 <subsection>
139 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140 <body>
141
142 <p>
143 Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
144 SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
145 otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
146 </p>
147
148 </body>
149 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
150
151 <p>
152 We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
153 strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
154 notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
155 <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
156 requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package. Make sure you select IA32
157 Emulation if you want to be able to run 32-bit programs. Gentoo will install a
158 multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so you probably
159 want this option.
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
163 Processor type and features --->
164 [ ] Machine Check Exception
165 [ ] Intel MCE Features
166 [ ] AMD MCE Features
167 Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
168 ( ) Opteron/Athlon64/Hammer/K8
169 ( ) Intel P4 / older Netburst based Xeon
170 ( ) Core 2/newer Xeon
171 ( ) Generic-x86-64
172 Executable file formats / Emulations --->
173 [*] IA32 Emulation
174 </pre>
175
176 </body>
177 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
178
179 <p>
180 Now select the correct processor family:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
184 Processor type and features ---&gt;
185 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
186 (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
187 </pre>
188
189 </body>
190 <body>
191
192 <p>
193 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
194 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
195 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
196 file system</c>.
197 </p>
198
199 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
200 File systems ---&gt;
201 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
202 [*] /proc file system support
203 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
204
205 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
206 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
207 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
208 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
209 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
210 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
211 </pre>
212
213 <p>
214 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
215 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
216 </p>
217
218 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
219 Device Drivers ---&gt;
220 Networking Support ---&gt;
221 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
222 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
223 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
224 </pre>
225
226 <p>
227 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
228 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
229 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
230 </p>
231
232 <p>
233 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
234 ethernet card.
235 </p>
236
237 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
238 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
239 multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
240 </p>
241
242 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
243 If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
244 should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
245 </p>
246
247 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
248 Processor type and features ---&gt;
249 [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
250 </pre>
251
252 <note>
253 In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
254 </note>
255
256 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
257 If you have more than 4GB of RAM, you need to enable "High Memory Support
258 (64G)".
259 </p>
260
261 <p>
262 If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
263 those as well:
264 </p>
265
266 <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
267 Device Drivers ---&gt;
268 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
269 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
270 </pre>
271
272 </body>
273 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
274
275 <p>
276 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
277 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
281 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
282 PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
283 &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
284 <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
285 &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
286 [*] 32-bit CardBus support
287 <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
288 --- PC-card bridges
289 &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
290 &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
291 &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
292 &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
293 &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
294 </pre>
295
296 <p>
297 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
298 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
299 </p>
300
301 </body>
302 </subsection>
303 <subsection id="compiling">
304 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
305 <body>
306
307 <p>
308 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
309 the configuration and start the compilation process:
310 </p>
311
312 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
313 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 <p>
317 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
318 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
319 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
320 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
321 name and version of your kernel.
322 </p>
323
324 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
325 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
326 </pre>
327
328 <p>
329 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
330 </p>
331
332 </body>
333 </subsection>
334 </section>
335 <section id="genkernel">
336 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
337 <body>
338
339 <p>
340 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
341 script to configure your kernel for you.
342 </p>
343
344 <p>
345 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
346 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
347 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
348 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
349 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
350 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
351 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
352 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
353 </p>
354
355 <p>
356 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
360 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
361 </pre>
362
363 </body>
364 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
365
366 <p>
367 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
368 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
372 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/x86/kernel-config-2.6</i>
373 </pre>
374
375 </body>
376 <body>
377
378 <p>
379 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
380 though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
381 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
382 </p>
383
384 <p>
385 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
386 might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
387 all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
388 <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
389 <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
390 </p>
391
392 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
393 # <i>genkernel all</i>
394 </pre>
395
396 <p>
397 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
398 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
399 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
400 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
401 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
402 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
403 before your "real" system starts up.
404 </p>
405
406 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
407 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
408 </pre>
409
410 </body>
411 </section>
412 <section id="kernel_modules">
413 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
414
415 <subsection>
416 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
417 </subsection>
418
419 </section>
420 </sections>

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