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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7     <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86-medium.xml,v 1.48 2006/07/19 20:30:19 neysx Exp $ -->
8    
9     <sections>
10    
11     <version>2.11</version>
12     <date>2006-07-19</date>
13    
14     <section>
15     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Introduction</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22     successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23     </p>
24    
25     </body>
26     </subsection>
27     <subsection>
28     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29     <body>
30    
31     <table>
32     <tr>
33     <ti/>
34     <th>Minimal CD</th>
35     <th>LiveCD</th>
36     </tr>
37     <tr>
38     <th>CPU</th>
39     <ti>i486 or later</ti>
40     <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
41     </tr>
42     <tr>
43     <th>Memory</th>
44     <ti>64 MB</ti>
45     <ti>128 MB</ti>
46     </tr>
47     <tr>
48     <th>Diskspace</th>
49     <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
50     </tr>
51     <tr>
52     <th>Swap space</th>
53     <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
54     </tr>
55     </table>
56    
57     </body>
58     </subsection>
59     </section>
60     <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
61     <!-- START -->
62     <section>
63     <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
64     <subsection>
65     <title>Introduction</title>
66     <body>
67    
68     <p>
69     The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
70     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
71     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
72     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
73     </p>
74    
75     <p>
76     All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
77     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
78     two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
79     as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
80     latest version of the available packages.
81     </p>
82    
83     <impo>
84     If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection or would
85     like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
86     instructions described in the <uri link="2006.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2006.0
87     Handbooks</uri>.
88     </impo>
89    
90     <p>
91     The two Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
92     </p>
93    
94     <ul>
95     <li>
96     The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
97     CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
98     continue with the Gentoo installation.
99     </li>
100     <li>
101     The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
102     Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
103     based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
104     and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
105     </li>
106     </ul>
107    
108     <p>
109     To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
110     major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
111     </p>
112    
113     </body>
114     </subsection>
115     <subsection>
116     <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
117     <body>
118    
119     <p>
120     The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso</c>
121     and takes up only 49 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to
122     install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
123     </p>
124    
125     <table>
126     <tr>
127     <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
128     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
129     </tr>
130     <tr>
131     <th>+</th>
132     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
133     </tr>
134     <tr>
135     <th>-</th>
136     <ti>
137     Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
138     therefore not suitable for networkless installation
139     </ti>
140     </tr>
141     </table>
142    
143     </body>
144     </subsection>
145     <subsection>
146     <title>Gentoo's Installer LiveCD</title>
147     <body>
148    
149     <p>
150     The Installer LiveCD is called
151     <c>livecd-i686-installer-2006.0.iso</c> and takes up 697 MB. You can use
152     this Installation CD to install Gentoo, and you can even use it to install
153     Gentoo without a working internet connection, just in case you want to bring
154     Gentoo to another PC than the one you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
155     </p>
156    
157     <table>
158     <tr>
159     <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
160     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
161     </tr>
162     <tr>
163     <th>+</th>
164     <ti>
165     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
166     connection.
167     </ti>
168     </tr>
169     <tr>
170     <th>-</th>
171     <ti>Huge download</ti>
172     </tr>
173     </table>
174    
175     </body>
176     </subsection>
177     <!-- PackageCDs on x86 are outdated
178     <subsection>
179     <title>Other CDs</title>
180     <body>
181    
182     <p>
183     You might find a <e>Package CD</e> on one of our mirrors. This CD is not an
184     Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
185     networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP
186     set) that allow you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such
187     as OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo
188     installation.
189     </p>
190    
191     <p>
192     If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software,
193     make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage3 tarball you use.
194     </p>
195    
196     </body>
197     </subsection>-->
198     <subsection>
199     <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
200     <body>
201    
202     <p>
203     A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment, suitable
204     to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this manual.
205     Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of three
206     stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
207     official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
208     performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
209     the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
210     Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
211     </p>
212    
213     <p>
214     Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path>releases/x86/2006.0/stages/</path>
215     on any of the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri>
216     and are not provided on the LiveCD.
217     </p>
218    
219     </body>
220     </subsection>
221     </section>
222     <!-- STOP -->
223     <section>
224     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
225     <subsection>
226     <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
227     <body>
228    
229     <p>
230     You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
231     downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
232     the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
233     </p>
234    
235     <p>
236     You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
237     CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
238     Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/x86/2006.0/installcd</path>
239     directory.
240     </p>
241    
242     <p>
243     Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
244     can write on a CD-R.
245     </p>
246    
247     <p>
248     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
249     its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
250     <path>install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
251     checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
252     link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
253     </p>
254    
255     <p>
256     Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
257     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
258     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
259     </p>
260    
261     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
262     $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
263     </pre>
264    
265     <p>
266     Now verify the signature:
267     </p>
268    
269     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
270     $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
271     </pre>
272    
273     <p>
274     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
275     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
276     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
277     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
278     </p>
279    
280     <ul>
281     <li>
282     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
283     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
284     device path).
285     </li>
286     <li>
287     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
288     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
289     <c>Start</c>.
290     </li>
291     </ul>
292    
293     </body>
294     </subsection>
295     <subsection>
296     <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
297     <body>
298    
299     <impo>
300     Read this whole subsection before continuing, as you will probably not have the
301     opportunity to read it before doing things later.
302     </impo>
303    
304     <p>
305     Once you have burned your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
306     Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
307     This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
308     the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
309     disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
310     will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
311     </p>
312    
313     <p>
314     Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive (duh) and reboot. You
315     should see a boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the
316     boot process with the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with
317     custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then
318     hitting Enter.
319     </p>
320    
321     <p>
322     Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
323     The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
324     and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
325     </p>
326    
327     <p>
328     Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
329     </p>
330    
331     <table>
332     <tr>
333     <th>Kernel</th>
334     <th>Description</th>
335     </tr>
336     <tr>
337     <ti>gentoo</ti>
338     <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
339     </tr>
340     <tr>
341     <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
342     <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
343     </tr>
344     <tr>
345     <ti>memtest86</ti>
346     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
347     </tr>
348     </table>
349    
350     <p>
351     You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
352     (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
353     when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
354     </p>
355    
356     <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
357     - agpgart loads agpgart (use if you have graphic problems,lockups)
358     - acpi=on loads support for ACPI firmware
359     - ide=nodma force disabling of DMA for malfunctioning IDE devices
360     - doscsi scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)
361     - dopcmcia starts pcmcia service for PCMCIA cdroms
362     - nofirewire disables firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)
363     - nokeymap disables keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts
364     - docache cache the entire runtime portion of cd in RAM, allows you
365     to umount /mnt/cdrom to mount another cdrom.
366     - nodetect causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run
367     - nousb disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug
368     - nodhcp dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected
369     - nohotplug disables loading hotplug service
370     - noapic disable apic (try if having hardware problems nics,scsi,etc)
371     - noevms disable loading of EVMS2 modules
372     - nolvm2 disable loading of LVM2 modules
373     - hdx=stroke allows you to partition the whole harddrive even when your BIOS
374     can't handle large harddrives
375     - noload=module1,[module2,[...]]
376     disable loading of specific kernel modules
377     </pre>
378    
379     <p>
380     Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
381     <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
382     to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
383     parameters:
384     </p>
385    
386     <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
387     boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
388     </pre>
389    
390     <p>
391     You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
392     installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
393     press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection is
394     made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
395     process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
396     automatically logged in to the &quot;Live&quot; Gentoo Linux as
397     &quot;root&quot;, the super user. You should have a root (&quot;#&quot;) prompt
398     on the current console and can also switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2,
399     Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
400     </p>
401    
402     <p>
403     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
404     </p>
405    
406     </body>
407     </subsection>
408     <subsection id="hardware">
409     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
410     <body>
411    
412     <p>
413     When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
414     loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
415     vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases
416     it may not auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection
417     missed some of your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate
418     kernel modules manually.
419     </p>
420    
421     <p>
422     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
423     certain kinds of network interfaces):
424     </p>
425    
426     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
427     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
428     </pre>
429    
430     <p>
431     If you need PCMCIA support, you should start the <c>pcmcia</c> init script:
432     </p>
433    
434     <pre caption="Starting the PCMCIA init script">
435     # <i>/etc/init.d/pcmcia start</i>
436     </pre>
437    
438     </body>
439     </subsection>
440     <subsection>
441     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
442     <body>
443    
444     <p>
445     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
446     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
447     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
448     more precise impression):
449     </p>
450    
451     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
452     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
453     </pre>
454    
455     <p>
456     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
457     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
458     disk):
459     </p>
460    
461     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
462     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
463     <comment>Activate Safe Performance Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
464     </pre>
465    
466     </body>
467     </subsection>
468     <subsection id="useraccounts">
469     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
470     <body>
471    
472     <p>
473     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
474     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
475     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
476     the root password.
477     </p>
478    
479     <p>
480     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
481     </p>
482    
483     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
484     # <i>passwd</i>
485     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
486     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
487     </pre>
488    
489     <p>
490     To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
491     its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
492     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
493     </p>
494    
495     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
496     # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
497     # <i>passwd john</i>
498     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
499     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
500     </pre>
501    
502     <p>
503     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
504     <c>su</c>:
505     </p>
506    
507     <pre caption="Changing user id">
508     # <i>su - john</i>
509     </pre>
510    
511     </body>
512     </subsection>
513     <subsection>
514     <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
515     <body>
516    
517     <p>
518     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
519     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
520     link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
521     go to a new terminal and log in.
522     </p>
523    
524     <p>
525     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
526     <c>links</c> to read it:
527     </p>
528    
529     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
530     # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
531     </pre>
532    
533     <p>
534     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
535     more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
536     as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
537     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
538     document):
539     </p>
540    
541     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
542     # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml</i>
543     </pre>
544    
545     <p>
546     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
547     </p>
548    
549     </body>
550     </subsection>
551     <subsection>
552     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
553     <body>
554    
555     <p>
556     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
557     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
558     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
559     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
560     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
561     </p>
562    
563     <p>
564     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
565     </p>
566    
567     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
568     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
569     </pre>
570    
571     <p>
572     To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
573     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
574     </p>
575    
576     </body>
577     </subsection>
578     </section>
579     </sections>

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