/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.12 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Apr 2 16:43:02 2008 UTC (6 years ago) by neysx
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.11: +7 -207 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Extracted kernel parameters into hb-install-kernelparams.xml which is
used by handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml and
handbook/2008.0/hb-install-gli-medium.xml

1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.12 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.11 2008/04/01 17:21:03 neysx Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.5 <abstract>
12     You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13     Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD although installation through the
14     Installer LiveCD is possible as well.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 neysx 1.11 <version>6.1</version>
18 nightmorph 1.10 <date>2008-04-01</date>
19 neysx 1.1
20     <section>
21     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
22     <subsection>
23     <title>Introduction</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
28 neysx 1.11 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
29 neysx 1.1 </p>
30    
31     </body>
32     </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
35 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
36 neysx 1.1
37     <table>
38     <tr>
39     <ti/>
40     <th>Minimal CD</th>
41     <th>LiveCD</th>
42     </tr>
43     <tr>
44     <th>CPU</th>
45     <ti>i486 or later</ti>
46     <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
47     </tr>
48     <tr>
49     <th>Memory</th>
50     <ti>64 MB</ti>
51 neysx 1.8 <ti>256 MB</ti>
52 neysx 1.1 </tr>
53     <tr>
54     <th>Diskspace</th>
55     <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
56     </tr>
57     <tr>
58     <th>Swap space</th>
59     <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
60     </tr>
61     </table>
62    
63     </body>
64 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
65    
66     <table>
67     <tr>
68 neysx 1.8 <ti/>
69     <th>Minimal CD</th>
70     <th>LiveCD</th>
71     </tr>
72     <tr>
73 neysx 1.2 <th>CPU</th>
74 neysx 1.11 <ti colspan="2">
75     Any AMD64 CPU or <uri
76     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMT64#Intel_64">EM64T CPU</uri> (Core 2
77     Duo &amp; Quad processors are EM64T)
78     </ti>
79 neysx 1.2 </tr>
80     <tr>
81     <th>Memory</th>
82     <ti>64 MB</ti>
83 neysx 1.8 <ti>256 MB</ti>
84 neysx 1.2 </tr>
85     <tr>
86     <th>Diskspace</th>
87 neysx 1.8 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
88 neysx 1.2 </tr>
89     <tr>
90     <th>Swap space</th>
91 neysx 1.8 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
92 neysx 1.2 </tr>
93     </table>
94    
95     <p>
96     You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
97     AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
98     </p>
99    
100     </body>
101 neysx 1.1 </subsection>
102     </section>
103     <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
104     <!-- START -->
105     <section>
106     <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
107     <subsection>
108     <title>Introduction</title>
109     <body>
110    
111     <p>
112     The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
113     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
114     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
115     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
116     </p>
117    
118     <p>
119     All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
120     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
121 neysx 1.7 two Installation CDs which are equally suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
122 neysx 1.11 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
123 neysx 1.1 latest version of the available packages.
124     </p>
125    
126 nightmorph 1.3 <impo>
127     If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
128 neysx 1.1 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
129 nightmorph 1.10 instructions described in the <uri link="2008.0/">Gentoo 2008.0
130 neysx 1.1 Handbooks</uri>.
131     </impo>
132    
133     <p>
134 neysx 1.2 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
135 neysx 1.1 </p>
136    
137     <ul>
138     <li>
139 neysx 1.11 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
140     CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
141 neysx 1.1 continue with the Gentoo installation.
142     </li>
143 nightmorph 1.3 <li>
144 neysx 1.1 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
145     Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
146     based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
147     and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
148     </li>
149     </ul>
150    
151     <p>
152     To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
153     major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
154     </p>
155    
156     </body>
157     </subsection>
158     <subsection>
159 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
160 neysx 1.1 <body>
161    
162     <p>
163 neysx 1.2 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
164     takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
165     Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
166     connection.
167 neysx 1.1 </p>
168    
169     <table>
170     <tr>
171     <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
172     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
173     </tr>
174     <tr>
175     <th>+</th>
176     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
177     </tr>
178     <tr>
179     <th>-</th>
180     <ti>
181 neysx 1.2 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
182     is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
183 neysx 1.1 </ti>
184     </tr>
185     </table>
186    
187     </body>
188     </subsection>
189 nightmorph 1.3 <subsection>
190 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
191 neysx 1.1 <body>
192    
193     <p>
194 neysx 1.2 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
195     <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
196     Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
197     connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
198     you are currently installing Gentoo on.
199 neysx 1.1 </p>
200    
201     <table>
202     <tr>
203     <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
204     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
205     </tr>
206     <tr>
207     <th>+</th>
208     <ti>
209     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
210     connection.
211     </ti>
212     </tr>
213     <tr>
214     <th>-</th>
215     <ti>Huge download</ti>
216     </tr>
217     </table>
218    
219     </body>
220     </subsection>
221     <subsection>
222     <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
223     <body>
224    
225     <p>
226 neysx 1.2 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
227     suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
228     manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
229     three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
230 neysx 1.1 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
231     performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
232     the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
233     Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
234     </p>
235    
236     <p>
237 neysx 1.2 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
238     id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
239     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
240     on the LiveCD.
241 neysx 1.1 </p>
242    
243     </body>
244     </subsection>
245     </section>
246     <!-- STOP -->
247     <section>
248     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
249     <subsection>
250     <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
251     <body>
252    
253     <p>
254 neysx 1.11 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
255     downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
256     the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
257 neysx 1.1 </p>
258    
259 nightmorph 1.3 <p>
260 neysx 1.2 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
261     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
262     the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
263     </p>
264    
265 neysx 1.1 <p>
266 nightmorph 1.10 Inside that directory you'll find ISO files. Those are full CD images which you
267 neysx 1.1 can write on a CD-R.
268     </p>
269    
270     <p>
271     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
272     its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
273 neysx 1.2 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
274 neysx 1.1 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
275     link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
276     </p>
277    
278     <p>
279     Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
280     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
281     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
282     </p>
283    
284     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
285     $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
286     </pre>
287    
288     <p>
289     Now verify the signature:
290     </p>
291    
292     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
293     $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
294     </pre>
295    
296     <p>
297     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
298     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
299     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
300     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
301     </p>
302    
303     <ul>
304     <li>
305 neysx 1.11 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
306     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
307 neysx 1.1 device path).
308     </li>
309     <li>
310 nightmorph 1.9 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>. Then you can locate
311     your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click <c>Start</c>.
312 neysx 1.1 </li>
313     </ul>
314    
315     </body>
316     </subsection>
317     <subsection>
318     <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
319     <body>
320    
321     <p>
322 neysx 1.2 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
323 neysx 1.11 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
324     This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
325     the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
326     disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
327 neysx 1.1 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
328     </p>
329    
330     <p>
331 neysx 1.2 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
332     boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
333     the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
334     by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
335 neysx 1.1 </p>
336    
337     <p>
338 neysx 1.11 Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
339 neysx 1.1 The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
340     and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
341     </p>
342    
343     <p>
344     Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
345     </p>
346    
347 neysx 1.2 </body>
348     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
349    
350 neysx 1.1 <table>
351     <tr>
352     <th>Kernel</th>
353     <th>Description</th>
354     </tr>
355     <tr>
356     <ti>gentoo</ti>
357     <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
358     </tr>
359     <tr>
360     <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
361     <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
362     </tr>
363     <tr>
364     <ti>memtest86</ti>
365     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
366     </tr>
367     </table>
368    
369 neysx 1.2 </body>
370     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
371     <table>
372     <tr>
373     <th>Kernel</th>
374     <th>Description</th>
375     </tr>
376     <tr>
377     <ti>gentoo</ti>
378 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>
379 neysx 1.4 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUs (including NUMA support) and EM64T
380 nightmorph 1.3 CPUs
381     </ti>
382 neysx 1.2 </tr>
383     <tr>
384 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>memtest86</ti>
385     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
386 neysx 1.2 </tr>
387     </table>
388    
389 neysx 1.1 <p>
390     You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
391 neysx 1.11 (de)activate at will. The following options are available when you press F2 at
392     the bootscreen.
393 neysx 1.1 </p>
394    
395 neysx 1.12 </body>
396    
397     <body>
398     <include href="hb-install-kernelparams.xml"/>
399     </body>
400 nightmorph 1.10
401 neysx 1.12 <body>
402 neysx 1.1
403 nightmorph 1.10 <note>
404     The CD will check for "no*" options before "do*" options, so that you can
405     override any option in the exact order you specify.
406     </note>
407    
408 neysx 1.1 <p>
409     Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
410     <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
411     to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
412     parameters:
413     </p>
414    
415     <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
416     boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
417     </pre>
418    
419     <p>
420 neysx 1.2 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
421 neysx 1.1 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
422 neysx 1.2 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
423     is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
424 neysx 1.1 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
425 neysx 1.2 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
426     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
427     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
428     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
429 neysx 1.1 </p>
430    
431     <p>
432     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
433     </p>
434    
435     </body>
436     </subsection>
437     <subsection id="hardware">
438     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
439     <body>
440    
441     <p>
442 neysx 1.2 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
443     and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
444     majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
445     auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
446     your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
447 neysx 1.11 manually.
448 neysx 1.1 </p>
449    
450     <p>
451 neysx 1.11 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
452 neysx 1.1 certain kinds of network interfaces):
453     </p>
454    
455     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
456     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
457     </pre>
458    
459     </body>
460     </subsection>
461     <subsection>
462     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
463     <body>
464    
465     <p>
466     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
467     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
468     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
469     more precise impression):
470     </p>
471    
472     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
473     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
474     </pre>
475    
476     <p>
477     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
478     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
479     disk):
480     </p>
481    
482     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
483 neysx 1.2 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
484     # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
485    
486     <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
487     # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
488 neysx 1.1 </pre>
489    
490     </body>
491     </subsection>
492     <subsection id="useraccounts">
493     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
494     <body>
495    
496     <p>
497     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
498     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
499 neysx 1.11 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
500 neysx 1.1 the root password.
501     </p>
502    
503     <p>
504     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
505     </p>
506    
507     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
508     # <i>passwd</i>
509     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
510     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
511     </pre>
512    
513     <p>
514     To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
515     its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
516 neysx 1.2 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
517 neysx 1.1 </p>
518    
519     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
520     # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
521     # <i>passwd john</i>
522     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
523     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
524     </pre>
525    
526     <p>
527     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
528     <c>su</c>:
529     </p>
530    
531     <pre caption="Changing user id">
532     # <i>su - john</i>
533     </pre>
534    
535     </body>
536     </subsection>
537     <subsection>
538     <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
539     <body>
540    
541     <p>
542     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
543     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
544     link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
545     go to a new terminal and log in.
546     </p>
547    
548     <p>
549     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
550     <c>links</c> to read it:
551     </p>
552    
553     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
554     # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
555     </pre>
556    
557     <p>
558     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
559     more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
560     as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
561     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
562     document):
563     </p>
564    
565     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
566 neysx 1.2 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
567 neysx 1.1 </pre>
568    
569     <p>
570     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
571     </p>
572    
573     </body>
574     </subsection>
575     <subsection>
576     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
577     <body>
578    
579     <p>
580     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
581     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
582     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
583 neysx 1.11 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
584 neysx 1.1 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
585     </p>
586    
587     <p>
588     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
589     </p>
590    
591     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
592     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
593     </pre>
594    
595     <p>
596     To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
597     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
598     </p>
599    
600     </body>
601     </subsection>
602     </section>
603     </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20