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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.14 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.13 2008/04/02 17:02:24 neysx Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.5 <abstract>
12     You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13     Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD although installation through the
14     Installer LiveCD is possible as well.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 nightmorph 1.14 <version>6.3</version>
18     <date>2008-04-19</date>
19 neysx 1.1
20     <section>
21     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
22     <subsection>
23     <title>Introduction</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
28 neysx 1.11 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
29 neysx 1.1 </p>
30    
31     </body>
32     </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
35 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
36 neysx 1.1
37     <table>
38     <tr>
39     <ti/>
40     <th>Minimal CD</th>
41     <th>LiveCD</th>
42     </tr>
43     <tr>
44     <th>CPU</th>
45     <ti>i486 or later</ti>
46     <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
47     </tr>
48     <tr>
49     <th>Memory</th>
50     <ti>64 MB</ti>
51 neysx 1.8 <ti>256 MB</ti>
52 neysx 1.1 </tr>
53     <tr>
54     <th>Diskspace</th>
55     <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
56     </tr>
57     <tr>
58     <th>Swap space</th>
59     <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
60     </tr>
61     </table>
62    
63     </body>
64 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
65    
66     <table>
67     <tr>
68 neysx 1.8 <ti/>
69     <th>Minimal CD</th>
70     <th>LiveCD</th>
71     </tr>
72     <tr>
73 neysx 1.2 <th>CPU</th>
74 neysx 1.11 <ti colspan="2">
75     Any AMD64 CPU or <uri
76     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMT64#Intel_64">EM64T CPU</uri> (Core 2
77     Duo &amp; Quad processors are EM64T)
78     </ti>
79 neysx 1.2 </tr>
80     <tr>
81     <th>Memory</th>
82     <ti>64 MB</ti>
83 neysx 1.8 <ti>256 MB</ti>
84 neysx 1.2 </tr>
85     <tr>
86     <th>Diskspace</th>
87 neysx 1.8 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
88 neysx 1.2 </tr>
89     <tr>
90     <th>Swap space</th>
91 neysx 1.8 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
92 neysx 1.2 </tr>
93     </table>
94    
95     <p>
96     You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
97     AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
98     </p>
99    
100     </body>
101 neysx 1.1 </subsection>
102     </section>
103     <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
104     <!-- START -->
105     <section>
106     <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
107     <subsection>
108     <title>Introduction</title>
109     <body>
110    
111     <p>
112     The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
113     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
114     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
115     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
116     </p>
117    
118     <p>
119     All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
120     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
121 neysx 1.7 two Installation CDs which are equally suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
122 neysx 1.11 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
123 neysx 1.1 latest version of the available packages.
124     </p>
125    
126 nightmorph 1.3 <impo>
127     If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
128 neysx 1.1 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
129 nightmorph 1.10 instructions described in the <uri link="2008.0/">Gentoo 2008.0
130 neysx 1.1 Handbooks</uri>.
131     </impo>
132    
133     <p>
134 neysx 1.2 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
135 neysx 1.1 </p>
136    
137     <ul>
138     <li>
139 neysx 1.11 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
140     CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
141 neysx 1.1 continue with the Gentoo installation.
142     </li>
143 nightmorph 1.3 <li>
144 neysx 1.1 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
145     Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
146     based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
147     and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
148     </li>
149     </ul>
150    
151     <p>
152     To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
153     major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
154     </p>
155    
156     </body>
157     </subsection>
158     <subsection>
159 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
160 neysx 1.1 <body>
161    
162     <p>
163 neysx 1.2 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
164     takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
165     Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
166     connection.
167 neysx 1.1 </p>
168    
169     <table>
170     <tr>
171     <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
172     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
173     </tr>
174     <tr>
175     <th>+</th>
176     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
177     </tr>
178     <tr>
179     <th>-</th>
180     <ti>
181 neysx 1.2 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
182     is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
183 neysx 1.1 </ti>
184     </tr>
185     </table>
186    
187     </body>
188     </subsection>
189 nightmorph 1.3 <subsection>
190 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
191 neysx 1.1 <body>
192    
193     <p>
194 neysx 1.2 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
195     <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
196     Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
197     connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
198     you are currently installing Gentoo on.
199 neysx 1.1 </p>
200    
201     <table>
202     <tr>
203     <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
204     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
205     </tr>
206     <tr>
207     <th>+</th>
208     <ti>
209     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
210     connection.
211     </ti>
212     </tr>
213     <tr>
214     <th>-</th>
215     <ti>Huge download</ti>
216     </tr>
217     </table>
218    
219     </body>
220     </subsection>
221     <subsection>
222     <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
223     <body>
224    
225     <p>
226 neysx 1.2 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
227     suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
228     manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
229     three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
230 neysx 1.1 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
231     performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
232     the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
233     Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
234     </p>
235    
236     <p>
237 neysx 1.2 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
238     id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
239     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
240     on the LiveCD.
241 neysx 1.1 </p>
242    
243     </body>
244     </subsection>
245     </section>
246     <!-- STOP -->
247     <section>
248     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
249     <subsection>
250     <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
251     <body>
252    
253     <p>
254 neysx 1.11 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
255     downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
256     the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
257 neysx 1.1 </p>
258    
259 nightmorph 1.3 <p>
260 neysx 1.2 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
261     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
262     the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
263     </p>
264    
265 neysx 1.1 <p>
266 nightmorph 1.10 Inside that directory you'll find ISO files. Those are full CD images which you
267 neysx 1.1 can write on a CD-R.
268     </p>
269    
270     <p>
271     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
272     its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
273 neysx 1.2 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
274 neysx 1.1 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
275     link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
276     </p>
277    
278     <p>
279     Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
280     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
281     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
282     </p>
283    
284     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
285     $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
286     </pre>
287    
288     <p>
289     Now verify the signature:
290     </p>
291    
292     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
293     $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
294     </pre>
295    
296     <p>
297     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
298     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
299     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
300     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
301     </p>
302    
303     <ul>
304     <li>
305 neysx 1.11 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
306     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
307 neysx 1.1 device path).
308     </li>
309     <li>
310 nightmorph 1.9 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>. Then you can locate
311     your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click <c>Start</c>.
312 neysx 1.1 </li>
313     </ul>
314    
315     </body>
316     </subsection>
317     <subsection>
318     <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
319     <body>
320    
321     <p>
322 neysx 1.2 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
323 neysx 1.11 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
324     This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
325     the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
326     disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
327 neysx 1.1 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
328     </p>
329    
330     <p>
331 neysx 1.2 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
332     boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
333     the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
334     by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
335 neysx 1.1 </p>
336    
337     <p>
338 neysx 1.11 Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
339 neysx 1.1 The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
340     and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
341     </p>
342    
343     <p>
344     Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
345     </p>
346    
347     <table>
348     <tr>
349     <th>Kernel</th>
350     <th>Description</th>
351     </tr>
352 nightmorph 1.14 <tr test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
353 neysx 1.1 <ti>gentoo</ti>
354     <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
355     </tr>
356 nightmorph 1.14 <tr test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
357 neysx 1.2 <ti>gentoo</ti>
358 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>
359 nightmorph 1.14 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUS (including NUMA support) and EM64T
360 nightmorph 1.3 CPUs
361     </ti>
362 neysx 1.2 </tr>
363     <tr>
364 nightmorph 1.14 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
365     <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
366     </tr>
367     <tr>
368 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>memtest86</ti>
369     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
370 neysx 1.2 </tr>
371     </table>
372    
373 neysx 1.1 <p>
374     You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
375 neysx 1.11 (de)activate at will. The following options are available when you press F2 at
376     the bootscreen.
377 neysx 1.1 </p>
378    
379 neysx 1.12 </body>
380    
381     <body>
382     <include href="hb-install-kernelparams.xml"/>
383     </body>
384 nightmorph 1.10
385 neysx 1.12 <body>
386 neysx 1.1
387 nightmorph 1.10 <note>
388     The CD will check for "no*" options before "do*" options, so that you can
389     override any option in the exact order you specify.
390     </note>
391    
392 neysx 1.1 <p>
393     Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
394     <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
395     to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
396     parameters:
397     </p>
398    
399     <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
400     boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
401     </pre>
402    
403     <p>
404 neysx 1.2 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
405 neysx 1.1 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
406 neysx 1.2 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
407     is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
408 neysx 1.1 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
409 neysx 1.2 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
410     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
411     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
412     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
413 neysx 1.1 </p>
414    
415     <p>
416     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
417     </p>
418    
419     </body>
420     </subsection>
421     <subsection id="hardware">
422     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
423     <body>
424    
425     <p>
426 neysx 1.2 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
427     and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
428     majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
429     auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
430     your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
431 neysx 1.11 manually.
432 neysx 1.1 </p>
433    
434     <p>
435 neysx 1.11 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
436 neysx 1.1 certain kinds of network interfaces):
437     </p>
438    
439     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
440     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
441     </pre>
442    
443     </body>
444     </subsection>
445     <subsection>
446     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
447     <body>
448    
449     <p>
450     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
451     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
452     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
453     more precise impression):
454     </p>
455    
456     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
457     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
458     </pre>
459    
460     <p>
461     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
462     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
463     disk):
464     </p>
465    
466     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
467 neysx 1.2 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
468     # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
469    
470     <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
471     # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
472 neysx 1.1 </pre>
473    
474     </body>
475     </subsection>
476     <subsection id="useraccounts">
477     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
478     <body>
479    
480     <p>
481     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
482     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
483 neysx 1.11 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
484 neysx 1.1 the root password.
485     </p>
486    
487     <p>
488     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
489     </p>
490    
491     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
492     # <i>passwd</i>
493     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
494     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
495     </pre>
496    
497     <p>
498     To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
499     its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
500 neysx 1.2 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
501 neysx 1.1 </p>
502    
503     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
504     # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
505     # <i>passwd john</i>
506     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
507     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
508     </pre>
509    
510     <p>
511     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
512     <c>su</c>:
513     </p>
514    
515     <pre caption="Changing user id">
516     # <i>su - john</i>
517     </pre>
518    
519     </body>
520     </subsection>
521     <subsection>
522     <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
523     <body>
524    
525     <p>
526     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
527     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
528     link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
529     go to a new terminal and log in.
530     </p>
531    
532     <p>
533     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
534     <c>links</c> to read it:
535     </p>
536    
537     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
538     # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
539     </pre>
540    
541     <p>
542     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
543     more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
544     as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
545     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
546     document):
547     </p>
548    
549     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
550 neysx 1.2 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
551 neysx 1.1 </pre>
552    
553     <p>
554     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
555     </p>
556    
557     </body>
558     </subsection>
559     <subsection>
560     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
561     <body>
562    
563     <p>
564     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
565     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
566     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
567 neysx 1.11 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
568 neysx 1.1 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
569     </p>
570    
571     <p>
572     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
573     </p>
574    
575     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
576     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
577     </pre>
578    
579     <p>
580     To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
581     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
582     </p>
583    
584     </body>
585     </subsection>
586     </section>
587     </sections>

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