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2006.1 networked docs are in. portage handbook still untouched per separate bugs. thanks to all the hard work, guys. blame me if something is wrong (and please fix quickly) :)

1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.1 2006/08/13 08:43:00 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 nightmorph 1.3 <version>4.0</version>
12     <date>2006-08-30</date>
13 neysx 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Introduction</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22     successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23     </p>
24    
25     </body>
26     </subsection>
27     <subsection>
28     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
30 neysx 1.1
31     <table>
32     <tr>
33     <ti/>
34     <th>Minimal CD</th>
35     <th>LiveCD</th>
36     </tr>
37     <tr>
38     <th>CPU</th>
39     <ti>i486 or later</ti>
40     <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
41     </tr>
42     <tr>
43     <th>Memory</th>
44     <ti>64 MB</ti>
45     <ti>128 MB</ti>
46     </tr>
47     <tr>
48     <th>Diskspace</th>
49     <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
50     </tr>
51     <tr>
52     <th>Swap space</th>
53     <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
54     </tr>
55     </table>
56    
57     </body>
58 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
59    
60     <table>
61     <tr>
62     <th>CPU</th>
63     <ti>Any AMD64 CPU</ti>
64     </tr>
65     <tr>
66     <th>Memory</th>
67     <ti>64 MB</ti>
68     </tr>
69     <tr>
70     <th>Diskspace</th>
71     <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
72     </tr>
73     <tr>
74     <th>Swap space</th>
75     <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
76     </tr>
77     </table>
78    
79     <p>
80     You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
81     AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
82     </p>
83    
84     </body>
85 neysx 1.1 </subsection>
86     </section>
87     <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
88     <!-- START -->
89     <section>
90     <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
91     <subsection>
92     <title>Introduction</title>
93     <body>
94    
95     <p>
96     The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
97     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
98     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
99     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
100     </p>
101    
102     <p>
103     All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
104     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
105     two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
106     as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
107     latest version of the available packages.
108     </p>
109    
110 nightmorph 1.3 <impo>
111     If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
112 neysx 1.1 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
113 nightmorph 1.3 instructions described in the <uri link="2006.1/">Gentoo 2006.1
114 neysx 1.1 Handbooks</uri>.
115     </impo>
116    
117     <p>
118 neysx 1.2 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
119 neysx 1.1 </p>
120    
121     <ul>
122     <li>
123     The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
124     CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
125     continue with the Gentoo installation.
126     </li>
127 nightmorph 1.3 <li>
128 neysx 1.1 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
129     Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
130     based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
131     and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
132     </li>
133     </ul>
134    
135     <p>
136     To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
137     major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
138     </p>
139    
140     </body>
141     </subsection>
142     <subsection>
143 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
144 neysx 1.1 <body>
145    
146     <p>
147 neysx 1.2 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
148     takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
149     Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
150     connection.
151 neysx 1.1 </p>
152    
153     <table>
154     <tr>
155     <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
156     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
157     </tr>
158     <tr>
159     <th>+</th>
160     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
161     </tr>
162     <tr>
163     <th>-</th>
164     <ti>
165 neysx 1.2 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
166     is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
167 neysx 1.1 </ti>
168     </tr>
169     </table>
170    
171     </body>
172     </subsection>
173 nightmorph 1.3 <subsection>
174 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
175 neysx 1.1 <body>
176    
177     <p>
178 neysx 1.2 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
179     <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
180     Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
181     connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
182     you are currently installing Gentoo on.
183 neysx 1.1 </p>
184    
185     <table>
186     <tr>
187     <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
188     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
189     </tr>
190     <tr>
191     <th>+</th>
192     <ti>
193     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
194     connection.
195     </ti>
196     </tr>
197     <tr>
198     <th>-</th>
199     <ti>Huge download</ti>
200     </tr>
201     </table>
202    
203     </body>
204     </subsection>
205     <subsection>
206     <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
207     <body>
208    
209     <p>
210 neysx 1.2 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
211     suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
212     manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
213     three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
214 neysx 1.1 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
215     performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
216     the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
217     Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
218     </p>
219    
220     <p>
221 neysx 1.2 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
222     id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
223     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
224     on the LiveCD.
225 neysx 1.1 </p>
226    
227     </body>
228     </subsection>
229     </section>
230     <!-- STOP -->
231     <section>
232     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
233     <subsection>
234     <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
235     <body>
236    
237     <p>
238     You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
239     downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
240     the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
241     </p>
242    
243 nightmorph 1.3 <p>
244 neysx 1.2 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
245     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
246     the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
247     </p>
248    
249 neysx 1.1 <p>
250     Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
251     can write on a CD-R.
252     </p>
253    
254     <p>
255     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
256     its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
257 neysx 1.2 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
258 neysx 1.1 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
259     link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
260     </p>
261    
262     <p>
263     Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
264     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
265     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
266     </p>
267    
268     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
269     $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
270     </pre>
271    
272     <p>
273     Now verify the signature:
274     </p>
275    
276     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
277     $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
278     </pre>
279    
280     <p>
281     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
282     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
283     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
284     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
285     </p>
286    
287     <ul>
288     <li>
289     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
290     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
291     device path).
292     </li>
293     <li>
294     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
295     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
296     <c>Start</c>.
297     </li>
298     </ul>
299    
300     </body>
301     </subsection>
302     <subsection>
303     <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
304     <body>
305    
306     <p>
307 neysx 1.2 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
308 neysx 1.1 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
309     This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
310     the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
311     disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
312     will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
313     </p>
314    
315     <p>
316 neysx 1.2 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
317     boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
318     the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
319     by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
320 neysx 1.1 </p>
321    
322     <p>
323     Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
324     The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
325     and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
326     </p>
327    
328     <p>
329     Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
330     </p>
331    
332 neysx 1.2 </body>
333     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
334    
335 neysx 1.1 <table>
336     <tr>
337     <th>Kernel</th>
338     <th>Description</th>
339     </tr>
340     <tr>
341     <ti>gentoo</ti>
342     <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
343     </tr>
344     <tr>
345     <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
346     <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
347     </tr>
348     <tr>
349     <ti>memtest86</ti>
350     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
351     </tr>
352     </table>
353    
354 neysx 1.2 </body>
355     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
356     <table>
357     <tr>
358     <th>Kernel</th>
359     <th>Description</th>
360     </tr>
361     <tr>
362     <ti>gentoo</ti>
363 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>
364     Default kernel with support for K8 CPUS (including NUMA support) and EM64T
365     CPUs
366     </ti>
367 neysx 1.2 </tr>
368     <tr>
369 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>memtest86</ti>
370     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
371 neysx 1.2 </tr>
372     </table>
373    
374     </body>
375     <body>
376    
377 neysx 1.1 <p>
378     You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
379     (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
380     when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
381     </p>
382    
383     <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
384     - agpgart loads agpgart (use if you have graphic problems,lockups)
385     - acpi=on loads support for ACPI firmware
386     - ide=nodma force disabling of DMA for malfunctioning IDE devices
387     - doscsi scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)
388     - dopcmcia starts pcmcia service for PCMCIA cdroms
389     - nofirewire disables firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)
390     - nokeymap disables keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts
391     - docache cache the entire runtime portion of cd in RAM, allows you
392     to umount /mnt/cdrom to mount another cdrom.
393     - nodetect causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run
394     - nousb disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug
395     - nodhcp dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected
396     - nohotplug disables loading hotplug service
397     - noapic disable apic (try if having hardware problems nics,scsi,etc)
398     - noevms disable loading of EVMS2 modules
399     - nolvm2 disable loading of LVM2 modules
400     - hdx=stroke allows you to partition the whole harddrive even when your BIOS
401     can't handle large harddrives
402     - noload=module1,[module2,[...]]
403     disable loading of specific kernel modules
404     </pre>
405    
406     <p>
407     Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
408     <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
409     to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
410     parameters:
411     </p>
412    
413     <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
414     boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
415     </pre>
416    
417     <p>
418 neysx 1.2 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
419 neysx 1.1 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
420 neysx 1.2 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
421     is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
422 neysx 1.1 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
423 neysx 1.2 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
424     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
425     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
426     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
427 neysx 1.1 </p>
428    
429     <p>
430     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
431     </p>
432    
433     </body>
434     </subsection>
435     <subsection id="hardware">
436     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
437     <body>
438    
439     <p>
440 neysx 1.2 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
441     and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
442     majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
443     auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
444     your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
445     manually.
446 neysx 1.1 </p>
447    
448     <p>
449     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
450     certain kinds of network interfaces):
451     </p>
452    
453     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
454     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
455     </pre>
456    
457     <p>
458     If you need PCMCIA support, you should start the <c>pcmcia</c> init script:
459     </p>
460    
461     <pre caption="Starting the PCMCIA init script">
462     # <i>/etc/init.d/pcmcia start</i>
463     </pre>
464    
465     </body>
466     </subsection>
467     <subsection>
468     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
469     <body>
470    
471     <p>
472     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
473     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
474     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
475     more precise impression):
476     </p>
477    
478     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
479     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
480     </pre>
481    
482     <p>
483     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
484     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
485     disk):
486     </p>
487    
488     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
489 neysx 1.2 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
490     # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
491    
492     <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
493     # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
494 neysx 1.1 </pre>
495    
496     </body>
497     </subsection>
498     <subsection id="useraccounts">
499     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
500     <body>
501    
502     <p>
503     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
504     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
505     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
506     the root password.
507     </p>
508    
509     <p>
510     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
511     </p>
512    
513     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
514     # <i>passwd</i>
515     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
516     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
517     </pre>
518    
519     <p>
520     To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
521     its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
522 neysx 1.2 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
523 neysx 1.1 </p>
524    
525     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
526     # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
527     # <i>passwd john</i>
528     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
529     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
530     </pre>
531    
532     <p>
533     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
534     <c>su</c>:
535     </p>
536    
537     <pre caption="Changing user id">
538     # <i>su - john</i>
539     </pre>
540    
541     </body>
542     </subsection>
543     <subsection>
544     <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
545     <body>
546    
547     <p>
548     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
549     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
550     link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
551     go to a new terminal and log in.
552     </p>
553    
554     <p>
555     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
556     <c>links</c> to read it:
557     </p>
558    
559     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
560     # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
561     </pre>
562    
563     <p>
564     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
565     more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
566     as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
567     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
568     document):
569     </p>
570    
571     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
572 neysx 1.2 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
573 neysx 1.1 </pre>
574    
575     <p>
576     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
577     </p>
578    
579     </body>
580     </subsection>
581     <subsection>
582     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
583     <body>
584    
585     <p>
586     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
587     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
588     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
589     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
590     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
591     </p>
592    
593     <p>
594     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
595     </p>
596    
597     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
598     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
599     </pre>
600    
601     <p>
602     To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
603     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
604     </p>
605    
606     </body>
607     </subsection>
608     </section>
609     </sections>

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