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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.6 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.6 2007/03/19 10:53:21 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.5 <abstract>
12     You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13     Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD although installation through the
14     Installer LiveCD is possible as well.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 nightmorph 1.6 <version>5.0</version>
18     <date>2007-05-07</date>
19 neysx 1.1
20     <section>
21     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
22     <subsection>
23     <title>Introduction</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
28     successfully install Gentoo on your box.
29     </p>
30    
31     </body>
32     </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
35 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
36 neysx 1.1
37     <table>
38     <tr>
39     <ti/>
40     <th>Minimal CD</th>
41     <th>LiveCD</th>
42     </tr>
43     <tr>
44     <th>CPU</th>
45     <ti>i486 or later</ti>
46     <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
47     </tr>
48     <tr>
49     <th>Memory</th>
50     <ti>64 MB</ti>
51     <ti>128 MB</ti>
52     </tr>
53     <tr>
54     <th>Diskspace</th>
55     <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
56     </tr>
57     <tr>
58     <th>Swap space</th>
59     <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
60     </tr>
61     </table>
62    
63     </body>
64 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
65    
66     <table>
67     <tr>
68     <th>CPU</th>
69     <ti>Any AMD64 CPU</ti>
70     </tr>
71     <tr>
72     <th>Memory</th>
73     <ti>64 MB</ti>
74     </tr>
75     <tr>
76     <th>Diskspace</th>
77     <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
78     </tr>
79     <tr>
80     <th>Swap space</th>
81     <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
82     </tr>
83     </table>
84    
85     <p>
86     You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
87     AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
88     </p>
89    
90     </body>
91 neysx 1.1 </subsection>
92     </section>
93     <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
94     <!-- START -->
95     <section>
96     <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
97     <subsection>
98     <title>Introduction</title>
99     <body>
100    
101     <p>
102     The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
103     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
104     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
105     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
106     </p>
107    
108     <p>
109     All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
110     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
111     two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
112     as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
113     latest version of the available packages.
114     </p>
115    
116 nightmorph 1.3 <impo>
117     If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
118 neysx 1.1 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
119 nightmorph 1.6 instructions described in the <uri link="2007.0/">Gentoo 2007.0
120 neysx 1.1 Handbooks</uri>.
121     </impo>
122    
123     <p>
124 neysx 1.2 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
125 neysx 1.1 </p>
126    
127     <ul>
128     <li>
129     The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
130     CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
131     continue with the Gentoo installation.
132     </li>
133 nightmorph 1.3 <li>
134 neysx 1.1 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
135     Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
136     based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
137     and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
138     </li>
139     </ul>
140    
141     <p>
142     To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
143     major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
144     </p>
145    
146     </body>
147     </subsection>
148     <subsection>
149 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
150 neysx 1.1 <body>
151    
152     <p>
153 neysx 1.2 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
154     takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
155     Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
156     connection.
157 neysx 1.1 </p>
158    
159     <table>
160     <tr>
161     <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
162     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
163     </tr>
164     <tr>
165     <th>+</th>
166     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
167     </tr>
168     <tr>
169     <th>-</th>
170     <ti>
171 neysx 1.2 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
172     is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
173 neysx 1.1 </ti>
174     </tr>
175     </table>
176    
177     </body>
178     </subsection>
179 nightmorph 1.3 <subsection>
180 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
181 neysx 1.1 <body>
182    
183     <p>
184 neysx 1.2 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
185     <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
186     Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
187     connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
188     you are currently installing Gentoo on.
189 neysx 1.1 </p>
190    
191     <table>
192     <tr>
193     <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
194     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
195     </tr>
196     <tr>
197     <th>+</th>
198     <ti>
199     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
200     connection.
201     </ti>
202     </tr>
203     <tr>
204     <th>-</th>
205     <ti>Huge download</ti>
206     </tr>
207     </table>
208    
209     </body>
210     </subsection>
211     <subsection>
212     <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
213     <body>
214    
215     <p>
216 neysx 1.2 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
217     suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
218     manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
219     three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
220 neysx 1.1 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
221     performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
222     the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
223     Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
224     </p>
225    
226     <p>
227 neysx 1.2 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
228     id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
229     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
230     on the LiveCD.
231 neysx 1.1 </p>
232    
233     </body>
234     </subsection>
235     </section>
236     <!-- STOP -->
237     <section>
238     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
239     <subsection>
240     <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
241     <body>
242    
243     <p>
244     You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
245     downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
246     the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
247     </p>
248    
249 nightmorph 1.3 <p>
250 neysx 1.2 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
251     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
252     the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
253     </p>
254    
255 neysx 1.1 <p>
256     Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
257     can write on a CD-R.
258     </p>
259    
260     <p>
261     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
262     its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
263 neysx 1.2 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
264 neysx 1.1 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
265     link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
266     </p>
267    
268     <p>
269     Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
270     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
271     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
272     </p>
273    
274     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
275     $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
276     </pre>
277    
278     <p>
279     Now verify the signature:
280     </p>
281    
282     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
283     $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
284     </pre>
285    
286     <p>
287     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
288     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
289     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
290     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
291     </p>
292    
293     <ul>
294     <li>
295     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
296     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
297     device path).
298     </li>
299     <li>
300     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
301     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
302     <c>Start</c>.
303     </li>
304     </ul>
305    
306     </body>
307     </subsection>
308     <subsection>
309     <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
310     <body>
311    
312     <p>
313 neysx 1.2 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
314 neysx 1.1 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
315     This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
316     the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
317     disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
318     will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
319     </p>
320    
321     <p>
322 neysx 1.2 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
323     boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
324     the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
325     by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
326 neysx 1.1 </p>
327    
328     <p>
329     Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
330     The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
331     and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
332     </p>
333    
334     <p>
335     Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
336     </p>
337    
338 neysx 1.2 </body>
339     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
340    
341 neysx 1.1 <table>
342     <tr>
343     <th>Kernel</th>
344     <th>Description</th>
345     </tr>
346     <tr>
347     <ti>gentoo</ti>
348     <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
349     </tr>
350     <tr>
351     <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
352     <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
353     </tr>
354     <tr>
355     <ti>memtest86</ti>
356     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
357     </tr>
358     </table>
359    
360 neysx 1.2 </body>
361     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
362     <table>
363     <tr>
364     <th>Kernel</th>
365     <th>Description</th>
366     </tr>
367     <tr>
368     <ti>gentoo</ti>
369 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>
370 neysx 1.4 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUs (including NUMA support) and EM64T
371 nightmorph 1.3 CPUs
372     </ti>
373 neysx 1.2 </tr>
374     <tr>
375 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>memtest86</ti>
376     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
377 neysx 1.2 </tr>
378     </table>
379    
380     </body>
381     <body>
382    
383 neysx 1.1 <p>
384     You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
385     (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
386     when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
387     </p>
388    
389     <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
390     - agpgart loads agpgart (use if you have graphic problems,lockups)
391     - acpi=on loads support for ACPI firmware
392     - ide=nodma force disabling of DMA for malfunctioning IDE devices
393     - doscsi scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)
394     - dopcmcia starts pcmcia service for PCMCIA cdroms
395     - nofirewire disables firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)
396     - nokeymap disables keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts
397     - docache cache the entire runtime portion of cd in RAM, allows you
398     to umount /mnt/cdrom to mount another cdrom.
399     - nodetect causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run
400     - nousb disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug
401     - nodhcp dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected
402     - nohotplug disables loading hotplug service
403     - noapic disable apic (try if having hardware problems nics,scsi,etc)
404     - noevms disable loading of EVMS2 modules
405     - nolvm2 disable loading of LVM2 modules
406     - hdx=stroke allows you to partition the whole harddrive even when your BIOS
407     can't handle large harddrives
408     - noload=module1,[module2,[...]]
409     disable loading of specific kernel modules
410     </pre>
411    
412     <p>
413     Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
414     <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
415     to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
416     parameters:
417     </p>
418    
419     <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
420     boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
421     </pre>
422    
423     <p>
424 neysx 1.2 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
425 neysx 1.1 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
426 neysx 1.2 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
427     is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
428 neysx 1.1 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
429 neysx 1.2 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
430     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
431     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
432     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
433 neysx 1.1 </p>
434    
435     <p>
436     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
437     </p>
438    
439     </body>
440     </subsection>
441     <subsection id="hardware">
442     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
443     <body>
444    
445     <p>
446 neysx 1.2 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
447     and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
448     majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
449     auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
450     your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
451     manually.
452 neysx 1.1 </p>
453    
454     <p>
455     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
456     certain kinds of network interfaces):
457     </p>
458    
459     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
460     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
461     </pre>
462    
463     </body>
464     </subsection>
465     <subsection>
466     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
467     <body>
468    
469     <p>
470     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
471     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
472     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
473     more precise impression):
474     </p>
475    
476     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
477     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
478     </pre>
479    
480     <p>
481     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
482     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
483     disk):
484     </p>
485    
486     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
487 neysx 1.2 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
488     # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
489    
490     <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
491     # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
492 neysx 1.1 </pre>
493    
494     </body>
495     </subsection>
496     <subsection id="useraccounts">
497     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
498     <body>
499    
500     <p>
501     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
502     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
503     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
504     the root password.
505     </p>
506    
507     <p>
508     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
509     </p>
510    
511     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
512     # <i>passwd</i>
513     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
514     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
515     </pre>
516    
517     <p>
518     To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
519     its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
520 neysx 1.2 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
521 neysx 1.1 </p>
522    
523     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
524     # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
525     # <i>passwd john</i>
526     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
527     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
528     </pre>
529    
530     <p>
531     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
532     <c>su</c>:
533     </p>
534    
535     <pre caption="Changing user id">
536     # <i>su - john</i>
537     </pre>
538    
539     </body>
540     </subsection>
541     <subsection>
542     <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
543     <body>
544    
545     <p>
546     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
547     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
548     link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
549     go to a new terminal and log in.
550     </p>
551    
552     <p>
553     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
554     <c>links</c> to read it:
555     </p>
556    
557     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
558     # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
559     </pre>
560    
561     <p>
562     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
563     more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
564     as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
565     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
566     document):
567     </p>
568    
569     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
570 neysx 1.2 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
571 neysx 1.1 </pre>
572    
573     <p>
574     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
575     </p>
576    
577     </body>
578     </subsection>
579     <subsection>
580     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
581     <body>
582    
583     <p>
584     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
585     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
586     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
587     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
588     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
589     </p>
590    
591     <p>
592     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
593     </p>
594    
595     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
596     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
597     </pre>
598    
599     <p>
600     To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
601     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
602     </p>
603    
604     </body>
605     </subsection>
606     </section>
607     </sections>

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