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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.8 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.7 2007/05/15 16:17:25 neysx Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.5 <abstract>
12     You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13     Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD although installation through the
14     Installer LiveCD is possible as well.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 neysx 1.8 <version>5.1</version>
18     <date>2007-05-18</date>
19 neysx 1.1
20     <section>
21     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
22     <subsection>
23     <title>Introduction</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
28     successfully install Gentoo on your box.
29     </p>
30    
31     </body>
32     </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
35 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
36 neysx 1.1
37     <table>
38     <tr>
39     <ti/>
40     <th>Minimal CD</th>
41     <th>LiveCD</th>
42     </tr>
43     <tr>
44     <th>CPU</th>
45     <ti>i486 or later</ti>
46     <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
47     </tr>
48     <tr>
49     <th>Memory</th>
50     <ti>64 MB</ti>
51 neysx 1.8 <ti>256 MB</ti>
52 neysx 1.1 </tr>
53     <tr>
54     <th>Diskspace</th>
55     <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
56     </tr>
57     <tr>
58     <th>Swap space</th>
59     <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
60     </tr>
61     </table>
62    
63     </body>
64 neysx 1.2 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
65    
66     <table>
67     <tr>
68 neysx 1.8 <ti/>
69     <th>Minimal CD</th>
70     <th>LiveCD</th>
71     </tr>
72     <tr>
73 neysx 1.2 <th>CPU</th>
74 neysx 1.8 <ti colspan="2">Any AMD64 CPU or EM64T CPU</ti>
75 neysx 1.2 </tr>
76     <tr>
77     <th>Memory</th>
78     <ti>64 MB</ti>
79 neysx 1.8 <ti>256 MB</ti>
80 neysx 1.2 </tr>
81     <tr>
82     <th>Diskspace</th>
83 neysx 1.8 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
84 neysx 1.2 </tr>
85     <tr>
86     <th>Swap space</th>
87 neysx 1.8 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
88 neysx 1.2 </tr>
89     </table>
90    
91     <p>
92     You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
93     AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
94     </p>
95    
96     </body>
97 neysx 1.1 </subsection>
98     </section>
99     <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
100     <!-- START -->
101     <section>
102     <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
103     <subsection>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
109     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
110     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
111     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
112     </p>
113    
114     <p>
115     All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
116     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
117 neysx 1.7 two Installation CDs which are equally suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
118 neysx 1.1 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
119     latest version of the available packages.
120     </p>
121    
122 nightmorph 1.3 <impo>
123     If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
124 neysx 1.1 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
125 nightmorph 1.6 instructions described in the <uri link="2007.0/">Gentoo 2007.0
126 neysx 1.1 Handbooks</uri>.
127     </impo>
128    
129     <p>
130 neysx 1.2 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
131 neysx 1.1 </p>
132    
133     <ul>
134     <li>
135     The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
136     CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
137     continue with the Gentoo installation.
138     </li>
139 nightmorph 1.3 <li>
140 neysx 1.1 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
141     Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
142     based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
143     and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
144     </li>
145     </ul>
146    
147     <p>
148     To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
149     major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
150     </p>
151    
152     </body>
153     </subsection>
154     <subsection>
155 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
156 neysx 1.1 <body>
157    
158     <p>
159 neysx 1.2 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
160     takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
161     Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
162     connection.
163 neysx 1.1 </p>
164    
165     <table>
166     <tr>
167     <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
168     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
169     </tr>
170     <tr>
171     <th>+</th>
172     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
173     </tr>
174     <tr>
175     <th>-</th>
176     <ti>
177 neysx 1.2 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
178     is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
179 neysx 1.1 </ti>
180     </tr>
181     </table>
182    
183     </body>
184     </subsection>
185 nightmorph 1.3 <subsection>
186 neysx 1.2 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
187 neysx 1.1 <body>
188    
189     <p>
190 neysx 1.2 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
191     <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
192     Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
193     connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
194     you are currently installing Gentoo on.
195 neysx 1.1 </p>
196    
197     <table>
198     <tr>
199     <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
200     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
201     </tr>
202     <tr>
203     <th>+</th>
204     <ti>
205     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
206     connection.
207     </ti>
208     </tr>
209     <tr>
210     <th>-</th>
211     <ti>Huge download</ti>
212     </tr>
213     </table>
214    
215     </body>
216     </subsection>
217     <subsection>
218     <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
219     <body>
220    
221     <p>
222 neysx 1.2 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
223     suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
224     manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
225     three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
226 neysx 1.1 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
227     performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
228     the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
229     Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
230     </p>
231    
232     <p>
233 neysx 1.2 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
234     id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
235     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
236     on the LiveCD.
237 neysx 1.1 </p>
238    
239     </body>
240     </subsection>
241     </section>
242     <!-- STOP -->
243     <section>
244     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
245     <subsection>
246     <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250     You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
251     downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
252     the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
253     </p>
254    
255 nightmorph 1.3 <p>
256 neysx 1.2 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
257     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
258     the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
259     </p>
260    
261 neysx 1.1 <p>
262     Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
263     can write on a CD-R.
264     </p>
265    
266     <p>
267     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
268     its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
269 neysx 1.2 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
270 neysx 1.1 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
271     link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
272     </p>
273    
274     <p>
275     Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
276     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
277     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
278     </p>
279    
280     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
281     $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
282     </pre>
283    
284     <p>
285     Now verify the signature:
286     </p>
287    
288     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
289     $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
290     </pre>
291    
292     <p>
293     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
294     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
295     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
296     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
297     </p>
298    
299     <ul>
300     <li>
301     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
302     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
303     device path).
304     </li>
305     <li>
306     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
307     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
308     <c>Start</c>.
309     </li>
310     </ul>
311    
312     </body>
313     </subsection>
314     <subsection>
315     <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
316     <body>
317    
318     <p>
319 neysx 1.2 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
320 neysx 1.1 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
321     This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
322     the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
323     disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
324     will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
325     </p>
326    
327     <p>
328 neysx 1.2 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
329     boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
330     the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
331     by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
332 neysx 1.1 </p>
333    
334     <p>
335     Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
336     The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
337     and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
338     </p>
339    
340     <p>
341     Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
342     </p>
343    
344 neysx 1.2 </body>
345     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
346    
347 neysx 1.1 <table>
348     <tr>
349     <th>Kernel</th>
350     <th>Description</th>
351     </tr>
352     <tr>
353     <ti>gentoo</ti>
354     <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
355     </tr>
356     <tr>
357     <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
358     <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
359     </tr>
360     <tr>
361     <ti>memtest86</ti>
362     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
363     </tr>
364     </table>
365    
366 neysx 1.2 </body>
367     <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
368     <table>
369     <tr>
370     <th>Kernel</th>
371     <th>Description</th>
372     </tr>
373     <tr>
374     <ti>gentoo</ti>
375 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>
376 neysx 1.4 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUs (including NUMA support) and EM64T
377 nightmorph 1.3 CPUs
378     </ti>
379 neysx 1.2 </tr>
380     <tr>
381 nightmorph 1.3 <ti>memtest86</ti>
382     <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
383 neysx 1.2 </tr>
384     </table>
385    
386     </body>
387     <body>
388    
389 neysx 1.1 <p>
390     You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
391     (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
392     when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
393     </p>
394    
395     <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
396     - agpgart loads agpgart (use if you have graphic problems,lockups)
397     - acpi=on loads support for ACPI firmware
398     - ide=nodma force disabling of DMA for malfunctioning IDE devices
399     - doscsi scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)
400     - dopcmcia starts pcmcia service for PCMCIA cdroms
401     - nofirewire disables firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)
402     - nokeymap disables keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts
403     - docache cache the entire runtime portion of cd in RAM, allows you
404     to umount /mnt/cdrom to mount another cdrom.
405     - nodetect causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run
406     - nousb disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug
407     - nodhcp dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected
408     - nohotplug disables loading hotplug service
409     - noapic disable apic (try if having hardware problems nics,scsi,etc)
410     - noevms disable loading of EVMS2 modules
411     - nolvm2 disable loading of LVM2 modules
412     - hdx=stroke allows you to partition the whole harddrive even when your BIOS
413     can't handle large harddrives
414     - noload=module1,[module2,[...]]
415     disable loading of specific kernel modules
416     </pre>
417    
418     <p>
419     Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
420     <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
421     to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
422     parameters:
423     </p>
424    
425     <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
426     boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
427     </pre>
428    
429     <p>
430 neysx 1.2 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
431 neysx 1.1 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
432 neysx 1.2 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
433     is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
434 neysx 1.1 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
435 neysx 1.2 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
436     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
437     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
438     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
439 neysx 1.1 </p>
440    
441     <p>
442     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
443     </p>
444    
445     </body>
446     </subsection>
447     <subsection id="hardware">
448     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
449     <body>
450    
451     <p>
452 neysx 1.2 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
453     and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
454     majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
455     auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
456     your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
457     manually.
458 neysx 1.1 </p>
459    
460     <p>
461     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
462     certain kinds of network interfaces):
463     </p>
464    
465     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
466     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
467     </pre>
468    
469     </body>
470     </subsection>
471     <subsection>
472     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
473     <body>
474    
475     <p>
476     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
477     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
478     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
479     more precise impression):
480     </p>
481    
482     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
483     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
484     </pre>
485    
486     <p>
487     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
488     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
489     disk):
490     </p>
491    
492     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
493 neysx 1.2 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
494     # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
495    
496     <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
497     # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
498 neysx 1.1 </pre>
499    
500     </body>
501     </subsection>
502     <subsection id="useraccounts">
503     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
504     <body>
505    
506     <p>
507     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
508     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
509     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
510     the root password.
511     </p>
512    
513     <p>
514     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
515     </p>
516    
517     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
518     # <i>passwd</i>
519     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
520     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
521     </pre>
522    
523     <p>
524     To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
525     its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
526 neysx 1.2 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
527 neysx 1.1 </p>
528    
529     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
530     # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
531     # <i>passwd john</i>
532     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
533     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
534     </pre>
535    
536     <p>
537     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
538     <c>su</c>:
539     </p>
540    
541     <pre caption="Changing user id">
542     # <i>su - john</i>
543     </pre>
544    
545     </body>
546     </subsection>
547     <subsection>
548     <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
549     <body>
550    
551     <p>
552     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
553     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
554     link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
555     go to a new terminal and log in.
556     </p>
557    
558     <p>
559     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
560     <c>links</c> to read it:
561     </p>
562    
563     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
564     # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
565     </pre>
566    
567     <p>
568     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
569     more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
570     as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
571     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
572     document):
573     </p>
574    
575     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
576 neysx 1.2 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
577 neysx 1.1 </pre>
578    
579     <p>
580     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
581     </p>
582    
583     </body>
584     </subsection>
585     <subsection>
586     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
587     <body>
588    
589     <p>
590     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
591     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
592     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
593     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
594     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
595     </p>
596    
597     <p>
598     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
599     </p>
600    
601     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
602     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
603     </pre>
604    
605     <p>
606     To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
607     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
608     </p>
609    
610     </body>
611     </subsection>
612     </section>
613     </sections>

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