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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86-medium.xml,v 1.48 2006/07/19 20:30:19 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.11</version>
12 <date>2006-07-19</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <ti/>
34 <th>Minimal CD</th>
35 <th>LiveCD</th>
36 </tr>
37 <tr>
38 <th>CPU</th>
39 <ti>i486 or later</ti>
40 <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
41 </tr>
42 <tr>
43 <th>Memory</th>
44 <ti>64 MB</ti>
45 <ti>128 MB</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Diskspace</th>
49 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
50 </tr>
51 <tr>
52 <th>Swap space</th>
53 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
54 </tr>
55 </table>
56
57 </body>
58 </subsection>
59 </section>
60 <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
61 <!-- START -->
62 <section>
63 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
64 <subsection>
65 <title>Introduction</title>
66 <body>
67
68 <p>
69 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
70 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
71 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
72 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
73 </p>
74
75 <p>
76 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
77 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
78 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
79 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
80 latest version of the available packages.
81 </p>
82
83 <impo>
84 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection or would
85 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
86 instructions described in the <uri link="2006.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2006.0
87 Handbooks</uri>.
88 </impo>
89
90 <p>
91 The two Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
92 </p>
93
94 <ul>
95 <li>
96 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
97 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
98 continue with the Gentoo installation.
99 </li>
100 <li>
101 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
102 Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
103 based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
104 and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
105 </li>
106 </ul>
107
108 <p>
109 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
110 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
111 </p>
112
113 </body>
114 </subsection>
115 <subsection>
116 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
117 <body>
118
119 <p>
120 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso</c>
121 and takes up only 49 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to
122 install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
123 </p>
124
125 <table>
126 <tr>
127 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
128 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
129 </tr>
130 <tr>
131 <th>+</th>
132 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
133 </tr>
134 <tr>
135 <th>-</th>
136 <ti>
137 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
138 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
139 </ti>
140 </tr>
141 </table>
142
143 </body>
144 </subsection>
145 <subsection>
146 <title>Gentoo's Installer LiveCD</title>
147 <body>
148
149 <p>
150 The Installer LiveCD is called
151 <c>livecd-i686-installer-2006.0.iso</c> and takes up 697 MB. You can use
152 this Installation CD to install Gentoo, and you can even use it to install
153 Gentoo without a working internet connection, just in case you want to bring
154 Gentoo to another PC than the one you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
155 </p>
156
157 <table>
158 <tr>
159 <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
160 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
161 </tr>
162 <tr>
163 <th>+</th>
164 <ti>
165 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
166 connection.
167 </ti>
168 </tr>
169 <tr>
170 <th>-</th>
171 <ti>Huge download</ti>
172 </tr>
173 </table>
174
175 </body>
176 </subsection>
177 <!-- PackageCDs on x86 are outdated
178 <subsection>
179 <title>Other CDs</title>
180 <body>
181
182 <p>
183 You might find a <e>Package CD</e> on one of our mirrors. This CD is not an
184 Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
185 networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP
186 set) that allow you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such
187 as OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo
188 installation.
189 </p>
190
191 <p>
192 If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software,
193 make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage3 tarball you use.
194 </p>
195
196 </body>
197 </subsection>-->
198 <subsection>
199 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
200 <body>
201
202 <p>
203 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment, suitable
204 to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this manual.
205 Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of three
206 stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
207 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
208 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
209 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
210 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
211 </p>
212
213 <p>
214 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path>releases/x86/2006.0/stages/</path>
215 on any of the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri>
216 and are not provided on the LiveCD.
217 </p>
218
219 </body>
220 </subsection>
221 </section>
222 <!-- STOP -->
223 <section>
224 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
225 <subsection>
226 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
227 <body>
228
229 <p>
230 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
231 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
232 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
233 </p>
234
235 <p>
236 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
237 CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
238 Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/x86/2006.0/installcd</path>
239 directory.
240 </p>
241
242 <p>
243 Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
244 can write on a CD-R.
245 </p>
246
247 <p>
248 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
249 its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
250 <path>install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
251 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
252 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
257 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
258 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
259 </p>
260
261 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
262 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
263 </pre>
264
265 <p>
266 Now verify the signature:
267 </p>
268
269 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
270 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
271 </pre>
272
273 <p>
274 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
275 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
276 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
277 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
278 </p>
279
280 <ul>
281 <li>
282 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
283 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
284 device path).
285 </li>
286 <li>
287 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
288 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
289 <c>Start</c>.
290 </li>
291 </ul>
292
293 </body>
294 </subsection>
295 <subsection>
296 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
297 <body>
298
299 <impo>
300 Read this whole subsection before continuing, as you will probably not have the
301 opportunity to read it before doing things later.
302 </impo>
303
304 <p>
305 Once you have burned your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
306 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
307 This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
308 the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
309 disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
310 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
311 </p>
312
313 <p>
314 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive (duh) and reboot. You
315 should see a boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the
316 boot process with the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with
317 custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then
318 hitting Enter.
319 </p>
320
321 <p>
322 Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
323 The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
324 and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
329 </p>
330
331 <table>
332 <tr>
333 <th>Kernel</th>
334 <th>Description</th>
335 </tr>
336 <tr>
337 <ti>gentoo</ti>
338 <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
339 </tr>
340 <tr>
341 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
342 <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
343 </tr>
344 <tr>
345 <ti>memtest86</ti>
346 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
347 </tr>
348 </table>
349
350 <p>
351 You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
352 (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
353 when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
354 </p>
355
356 <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
357 - agpgart loads agpgart (use if you have graphic problems,lockups)
358 - acpi=on loads support for ACPI firmware
359 - ide=nodma force disabling of DMA for malfunctioning IDE devices
360 - doscsi scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)
361 - dopcmcia starts pcmcia service for PCMCIA cdroms
362 - nofirewire disables firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)
363 - nokeymap disables keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts
364 - docache cache the entire runtime portion of cd in RAM, allows you
365 to umount /mnt/cdrom to mount another cdrom.
366 - nodetect causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run
367 - nousb disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug
368 - nodhcp dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected
369 - nohotplug disables loading hotplug service
370 - noapic disable apic (try if having hardware problems nics,scsi,etc)
371 - noevms disable loading of EVMS2 modules
372 - nolvm2 disable loading of LVM2 modules
373 - hdx=stroke allows you to partition the whole harddrive even when your BIOS
374 can't handle large harddrives
375 - noload=module1,[module2,[...]]
376 disable loading of specific kernel modules
377 </pre>
378
379 <p>
380 Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
381 <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
382 to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
383 parameters:
384 </p>
385
386 <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
387 boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
388 </pre>
389
390 <p>
391 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
392 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
393 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection is
394 made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
395 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
396 automatically logged in to the &quot;Live&quot; Gentoo Linux as
397 &quot;root&quot;, the super user. You should have a root (&quot;#&quot;) prompt
398 on the current console and can also switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2,
399 Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
400 </p>
401
402 <p>
403 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
404 </p>
405
406 </body>
407 </subsection>
408 <subsection id="hardware">
409 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
410 <body>
411
412 <p>
413 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
414 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
415 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases
416 it may not auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection
417 missed some of your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate
418 kernel modules manually.
419 </p>
420
421 <p>
422 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
423 certain kinds of network interfaces):
424 </p>
425
426 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
427 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
428 </pre>
429
430 <p>
431 If you need PCMCIA support, you should start the <c>pcmcia</c> init script:
432 </p>
433
434 <pre caption="Starting the PCMCIA init script">
435 # <i>/etc/init.d/pcmcia start</i>
436 </pre>
437
438 </body>
439 </subsection>
440 <subsection>
441 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
446 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
447 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
448 more precise impression):
449 </p>
450
451 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
452 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
453 </pre>
454
455 <p>
456 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
457 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
458 disk):
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
462 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
463 <comment>Activate Safe Performance Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
464 </pre>
465
466 </body>
467 </subsection>
468 <subsection id="useraccounts">
469 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
470 <body>
471
472 <p>
473 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
474 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
475 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
476 the root password.
477 </p>
478
479 <p>
480 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
481 </p>
482
483 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
484 # <i>passwd</i>
485 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
486 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
487 </pre>
488
489 <p>
490 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
491 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
492 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
493 </p>
494
495 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
496 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
497 # <i>passwd john</i>
498 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
499 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>
503 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
504 <c>su</c>:
505 </p>
506
507 <pre caption="Changing user id">
508 # <i>su - john</i>
509 </pre>
510
511 </body>
512 </subsection>
513 <subsection>
514 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
515 <body>
516
517 <p>
518 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
519 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
520 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
521 go to a new terminal and log in.
522 </p>
523
524 <p>
525 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
526 <c>links</c> to read it:
527 </p>
528
529 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
530 # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
531 </pre>
532
533 <p>
534 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
535 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
536 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
537 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
538 document):
539 </p>
540
541 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
542 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml</i>
543 </pre>
544
545 <p>
546 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
547 </p>
548
549 </body>
550 </subsection>
551 <subsection>
552 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
553 <body>
554
555 <p>
556 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
557 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
558 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
559 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
560 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
561 </p>
562
563 <p>
564 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
565 </p>
566
567 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
568 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
569 </pre>
570
571 <p>
572 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
573 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
574 </p>
575
576 </body>
577 </subsection>
578 </section>
579 </sections>

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