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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.12 2008/04/02 16:43:02 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13 Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD although installation through the
14 Installer LiveCD is possible as well.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>6.2</version>
18 <date>2008-04-01</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>Introduction</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
28 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
35 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
36
37 <table>
38 <tr>
39 <ti/>
40 <th>Minimal CD</th>
41 <th>LiveCD</th>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>CPU</th>
45 <ti>i486 or later</ti>
46 <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
47 </tr>
48 <tr>
49 <th>Memory</th>
50 <ti>64 MB</ti>
51 <ti>256 MB</ti>
52 </tr>
53 <tr>
54 <th>Diskspace</th>
55 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
56 </tr>
57 <tr>
58 <th>Swap space</th>
59 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
60 </tr>
61 </table>
62
63 </body>
64 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
65
66 <table>
67 <tr>
68 <ti/>
69 <th>Minimal CD</th>
70 <th>LiveCD</th>
71 </tr>
72 <tr>
73 <th>CPU</th>
74 <ti colspan="2">
75 Any AMD64 CPU or <uri
76 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMT64#Intel_64">EM64T CPU</uri> (Core 2
77 Duo &amp; Quad processors are EM64T)
78 </ti>
79 </tr>
80 <tr>
81 <th>Memory</th>
82 <ti>64 MB</ti>
83 <ti>256 MB</ti>
84 </tr>
85 <tr>
86 <th>Diskspace</th>
87 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
88 </tr>
89 <tr>
90 <th>Swap space</th>
91 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
92 </tr>
93 </table>
94
95 <p>
96 You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
97 AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
98 </p>
99
100 </body>
101 </subsection>
102 </section>
103 <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
104 <!-- START -->
105 <section>
106 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
107 <subsection>
108 <title>Introduction</title>
109 <body>
110
111 <p>
112 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
113 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
114 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
115 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
116 </p>
117
118 <p>
119 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
120 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
121 two Installation CDs which are equally suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
122 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
123 latest version of the available packages.
124 </p>
125
126 <impo>
127 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
128 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
129 instructions described in the <uri link="2008.0/">Gentoo 2008.0
130 Handbooks</uri>.
131 </impo>
132
133 <p>
134 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
135 </p>
136
137 <ul>
138 <li>
139 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
140 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
141 continue with the Gentoo installation.
142 </li>
143 <li>
144 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
145 Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
146 based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
147 and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
148 </li>
149 </ul>
150
151 <p>
152 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
153 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
154 </p>
155
156 </body>
157 </subsection>
158 <subsection>
159 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <p>
163 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
164 takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
165 Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
166 connection.
167 </p>
168
169 <table>
170 <tr>
171 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
172 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
173 </tr>
174 <tr>
175 <th>+</th>
176 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
177 </tr>
178 <tr>
179 <th>-</th>
180 <ti>
181 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
182 is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
183 </ti>
184 </tr>
185 </table>
186
187 </body>
188 </subsection>
189 <subsection>
190 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
195 <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
196 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
197 connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
198 you are currently installing Gentoo on.
199 </p>
200
201 <table>
202 <tr>
203 <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
204 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
205 </tr>
206 <tr>
207 <th>+</th>
208 <ti>
209 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
210 connection.
211 </ti>
212 </tr>
213 <tr>
214 <th>-</th>
215 <ti>Huge download</ti>
216 </tr>
217 </table>
218
219 </body>
220 </subsection>
221 <subsection>
222 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
223 <body>
224
225 <p>
226 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
227 suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
228 manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
229 three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
230 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
231 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
232 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
233 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
234 </p>
235
236 <p>
237 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
238 id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
239 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
240 on the LiveCD.
241 </p>
242
243 </body>
244 </subsection>
245 </section>
246 <!-- STOP -->
247 <section>
248 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
249 <subsection>
250 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
251 <body>
252
253 <p>
254 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
255 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
256 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
257 </p>
258
259 <p>
260 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
261 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
262 the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
263 </p>
264
265 <p>
266 Inside that directory you'll find ISO files. Those are full CD images which you
267 can write on a CD-R.
268 </p>
269
270 <p>
271 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
272 its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
273 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
274 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
275 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
276 </p>
277
278 <p>
279 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
280 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
281 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
282 </p>
283
284 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
285 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
286 </pre>
287
288 <p>
289 Now verify the signature:
290 </p>
291
292 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
293 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
294 </pre>
295
296 <p>
297 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
298 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
299 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
300 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
301 </p>
302
303 <ul>
304 <li>
305 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
306 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
307 device path).
308 </li>
309 <li>
310 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>. Then you can locate
311 your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click <c>Start</c>.
312 </li>
313 </ul>
314
315 </body>
316 </subsection>
317 <subsection>
318 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
319 <body>
320
321 <p>
322 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
323 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
324 This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
325 the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
326 disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
327 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
328 </p>
329
330 <p>
331 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
332 boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
333 the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
334 by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
335 </p>
336
337 <p>
338 Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
339 The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
340 and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
341 </p>
342
343 <p>
344 Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
345 </p>
346
347 </body>
348 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
349
350 <table>
351 <tr>
352 <th>Kernel</th>
353 <th>Description</th>
354 </tr>
355 <tr>
356 <ti>gentoo</ti>
357 <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
358 </tr>
359 <tr>
360 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
361 <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
362 </tr>
363 <tr>
364 <ti>memtest86</ti>
365 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
366 </tr>
367 </table>
368
369 </body>
370 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
371 <table>
372 <tr>
373 <th>Kernel</th>
374 <th>Description</th>
375 </tr>
376 <tr>
377 <ti>gentoo</ti>
378 <ti>
379 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUs (including NUMA support) and EM64T
380 CPUs
381 </ti>
382 </tr>
383 <tr>
384 <ti>memtest86</ti>
385 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
386 </tr>
387 </table>
388
389 <p>
390 You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
391 (de)activate at will. The following options are available when you press F2 at
392 the bootscreen.
393 </p>
394
395 </body>
396
397 <body>
398 <include href="hb-install-kernelparams.xml"/>
399 </body>
400
401 <body>
402
403 <note>
404 The CD will check for "no*" options before "do*" options, so that you can
405 override any option in the exact order you specify.
406 </note>
407
408 <p>
409 Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
410 <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
411 to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
412 parameters:
413 </p>
414
415 <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
416 boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
417 </pre>
418
419 <p>
420 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
421 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
422 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
423 is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
424 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
425 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
426 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
427 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
428 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
429 </p>
430
431 <p>
432 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
433 </p>
434
435 </body>
436 </subsection>
437 <subsection id="hardware">
438 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
439 <body>
440
441 <p>
442 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
443 and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
444 majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
445 auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
446 your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
447 manually.
448 </p>
449
450 <p>
451 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
452 certain kinds of network interfaces):
453 </p>
454
455 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
456 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
457 </pre>
458
459 </body>
460 </subsection>
461 <subsection>
462 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
463 <body>
464
465 <p>
466 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
467 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
468 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
469 more precise impression):
470 </p>
471
472 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
473 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
474 </pre>
475
476 <p>
477 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
478 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
479 disk):
480 </p>
481
482 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
483 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
484 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
485
486 <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
487 # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
488 </pre>
489
490 </body>
491 </subsection>
492 <subsection id="useraccounts">
493 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
494 <body>
495
496 <p>
497 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
498 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
499 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
500 the root password.
501 </p>
502
503 <p>
504 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
505 </p>
506
507 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
508 # <i>passwd</i>
509 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
510 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
511 </pre>
512
513 <p>
514 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
515 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
516 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
517 </p>
518
519 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
520 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
521 # <i>passwd john</i>
522 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
523 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
524 </pre>
525
526 <p>
527 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
528 <c>su</c>:
529 </p>
530
531 <pre caption="Changing user id">
532 # <i>su - john</i>
533 </pre>
534
535 </body>
536 </subsection>
537 <subsection>
538 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
539 <body>
540
541 <p>
542 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
543 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
544 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
545 go to a new terminal and log in.
546 </p>
547
548 <p>
549 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
550 <c>links</c> to read it:
551 </p>
552
553 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
554 # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
555 </pre>
556
557 <p>
558 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
559 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
560 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
561 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
562 document):
563 </p>
564
565 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
566 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
567 </pre>
568
569 <p>
570 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
571 </p>
572
573 </body>
574 </subsection>
575 <subsection>
576 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
577 <body>
578
579 <p>
580 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
581 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
582 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
583 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
584 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
585 </p>
586
587 <p>
588 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
589 </p>
590
591 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
592 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
593 </pre>
594
595 <p>
596 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
597 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
598 </p>
599
600 </body>
601 </subsection>
602 </section>
603 </sections>

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