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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86-medium.xml,v 1.48 2006/07/19 20:30:19 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.12</version>
12 <date>2006-07-26</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <ti/>
34 <th>Minimal CD</th>
35 <th>LiveCD</th>
36 </tr>
37 <tr>
38 <th>CPU</th>
39 <ti>i486 or later</ti>
40 <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
41 </tr>
42 <tr>
43 <th>Memory</th>
44 <ti>64 MB</ti>
45 <ti>128 MB</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Diskspace</th>
49 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
50 </tr>
51 <tr>
52 <th>Swap space</th>
53 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
54 </tr>
55 </table>
56
57 </body>
58 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
59
60 <table>
61 <tr>
62 <th>CPU</th>
63 <ti>Any AMD64 CPU</ti>
64 </tr>
65 <tr>
66 <th>Memory</th>
67 <ti>64 MB</ti>
68 </tr>
69 <tr>
70 <th>Diskspace</th>
71 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
72 </tr>
73 <tr>
74 <th>Swap space</th>
75 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
76 </tr>
77 </table>
78
79 <p>
80 You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
81 AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 </section>
87 <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
88 <!-- START -->
89 <section>
90 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
91 <subsection>
92 <title>Introduction</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
97 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
98 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
99 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
104 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
105 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
106 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
107 latest version of the available packages.
108 </p>
109
110 <impo test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
111 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection or would
112 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
113 instructions described in the <uri link="2006.0/">Gentoo 2006.0
114 Handbooks</uri>.
115 </impo>
116
117 <impo test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
118 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
119 the installation instructions described in the <uri link="2006.0/">Gentoo
120 2006.0 Handbooks</uri>.
121 </impo>
122
123 <p>
124 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
125 </p>
126
127 <ul>
128 <li>
129 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
130 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
131 continue with the Gentoo installation.
132 </li>
133 <li test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
134 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
135 Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
136 based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
137 and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
138 </li>
139 <li test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
140 The Gentoo <e>Universal</e> Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same
141 abilities as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains the
142 stage3 tarball.
143 </li>
144 </ul>
145
146 <p>
147 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
148 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
149 </p>
150
151 </body>
152 </subsection>
153 <subsection>
154 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
155 <body>
156
157 <p>
158 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
159 takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
160 Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
161 connection.
162 </p>
163
164 <table>
165 <tr>
166 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
167 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
168 </tr>
169 <tr>
170 <th>+</th>
171 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
172 </tr>
173 <tr>
174 <th>-</th>
175 <ti>
176 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
177 is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
178 </ti>
179 </tr>
180 </table>
181
182 </body>
183 </subsection>
184 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
185 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
186 <body>
187
188 <p>
189 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
190 <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
191 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
192 connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
193 you are currently installing Gentoo on.
194 </p>
195
196 <table>
197 <tr>
198 <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
199 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
200 </tr>
201 <tr>
202 <th>+</th>
203 <ti>
204 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
205 connection.
206 </ti>
207 </tr>
208 <tr>
209 <th>-</th>
210 <ti>Huge download</ti>
211 </tr>
212 </table>
213
214 </body>
215 </subsection>
216 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
217 <title>Gentoo Universal Installation CD</title>
218 <body>
219
220 <p>
221 The Universal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="uni-cd-name"/></c> and
222 takes up <keyval id="uni-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to
223 install Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working
224 internet connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than
225 the one you are currently installing Gentoo on.
226 </p>
227
228 <table>
229 <tr>
230 <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
231 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
232 </tr>
233 <tr>
234 <th>+</th>
235 <ti>
236 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
237 connection.
238 </ti>
239 </tr>
240 <tr>
241 <th>-</th>
242 <ti>Huge download</ti>
243 </tr>
244 </table>
245
246 </body>
247 </subsection>
248 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
249 <title>Other CDs</title>
250 <body>
251
252 <p>
253 You might find a <e>Package CD</e> on one of our mirrors. This CD is not an
254 Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
255 networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP
256 set) that allow you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such
257 as OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo
258 installation.
259 </p>
260
261 <p>
262 If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software,
263 make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage3 tarball you use.
264 </p>
265
266 </body>
267 </subsection>
268 <subsection>
269 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
270 <body>
271
272 <p>
273 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
274 suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
275 manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
276 three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
277 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
278 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
279 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
280 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
285 id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
286 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
287 on the LiveCD.
288 </p>
289
290 </body>
291 </subsection>
292 </section>
293 <!-- STOP -->
294 <section>
295 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
296 <subsection>
297 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
298 <body>
299
300 <p>
301 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
302 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
303 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
304 </p>
305
306 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
307 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
308 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
309 the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
310 </p>
311
312 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
313 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
314 CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
315 Installation CDs are located in the <path><keyval
316 id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
317 </p>
318
319 <p>
320 Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
321 can write on a CD-R.
322 </p>
323
324 <p>
325 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
326 its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
327 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
328 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
329 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
330 </p>
331
332 <p>
333 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
334 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
335 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
339 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 Now verify the signature:
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
347 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
352 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
353 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
354 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
355 </p>
356
357 <ul>
358 <li>
359 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
360 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
361 device path).
362 </li>
363 <li>
364 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
365 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
366 <c>Start</c>.
367 </li>
368 </ul>
369
370 </body>
371 </subsection>
372 <subsection>
373 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
374 <body>
375
376 <p>
377 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
378 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
379 This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
380 the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
381 disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
382 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
383 </p>
384
385 <p>
386 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
387 boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
388 the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
389 by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
390 </p>
391
392 <p>
393 Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
394 The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
395 and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
396 </p>
397
398 <p>
399 Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
400 </p>
401
402 </body>
403 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
404
405 <table>
406 <tr>
407 <th>Kernel</th>
408 <th>Description</th>
409 </tr>
410 <tr>
411 <ti>gentoo</ti>
412 <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
413 </tr>
414 <tr>
415 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
416 <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
417 </tr>
418 <tr>
419 <ti>memtest86</ti>
420 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
421 </tr>
422 </table>
423
424 </body>
425 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
426 <table>
427 <tr>
428 <th>Kernel</th>
429 <th>Description</th>
430 </tr>
431 <tr>
432 <ti>gentoo</ti>
433 <ti>Default kernel with support for K8 CPUs with NUMA</ti>
434 </tr>
435 <tr>
436 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
437 <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
438 </tr>
439 </table>
440
441 </body>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
446 (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
447 when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
448 </p>
449
450 <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
451 - agpgart loads agpgart (use if you have graphic problems,lockups)
452 - acpi=on loads support for ACPI firmware
453 - ide=nodma force disabling of DMA for malfunctioning IDE devices
454 - doscsi scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)
455 - dopcmcia starts pcmcia service for PCMCIA cdroms
456 - nofirewire disables firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)
457 - nokeymap disables keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts
458 - docache cache the entire runtime portion of cd in RAM, allows you
459 to umount /mnt/cdrom to mount another cdrom.
460 - nodetect causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run
461 - nousb disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug
462 - nodhcp dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected
463 - nohotplug disables loading hotplug service
464 - noapic disable apic (try if having hardware problems nics,scsi,etc)
465 - noevms disable loading of EVMS2 modules
466 - nolvm2 disable loading of LVM2 modules
467 - hdx=stroke allows you to partition the whole harddrive even when your BIOS
468 can't handle large harddrives
469 - noload=module1,[module2,[...]]
470 disable loading of specific kernel modules
471 </pre>
472
473 <p>
474 Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
475 <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
476 to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
477 parameters:
478 </p>
479
480 <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
481 boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
482 </pre>
483
484 <p>
485 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
486 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
487 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
488 is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
489 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
490 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
491 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
492 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
493 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
494 </p>
495
496 <p>
497 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
498 </p>
499
500 </body>
501 </subsection>
502 <subsection id="hardware">
503 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
504 <body>
505
506 <p>
507 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
508 and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
509 majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
510 auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
511 your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
512 manually.
513 </p>
514
515 <p>
516 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
517 certain kinds of network interfaces):
518 </p>
519
520 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
521 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
522 </pre>
523
524 <p>
525 If you need PCMCIA support, you should start the <c>pcmcia</c> init script:
526 </p>
527
528 <pre caption="Starting the PCMCIA init script">
529 # <i>/etc/init.d/pcmcia start</i>
530 </pre>
531
532 </body>
533 </subsection>
534 <subsection>
535 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
536 <body>
537
538 <p>
539 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
540 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
541 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
542 more precise impression):
543 </p>
544
545 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
546 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
547 </pre>
548
549 <p>
550 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
551 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
552 disk):
553 </p>
554
555 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
556 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
557 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
558
559 <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
560 # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
561 </pre>
562
563 </body>
564 </subsection>
565 <subsection id="useraccounts">
566 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
567 <body>
568
569 <p>
570 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
571 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
572 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
573 the root password.
574 </p>
575
576 <p>
577 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
578 </p>
579
580 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
581 # <i>passwd</i>
582 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
583 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
584 </pre>
585
586 <p>
587 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
588 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
589 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
590 </p>
591
592 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
593 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
594 # <i>passwd john</i>
595 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
596 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
597 </pre>
598
599 <p>
600 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
601 <c>su</c>:
602 </p>
603
604 <pre caption="Changing user id">
605 # <i>su - john</i>
606 </pre>
607
608 </body>
609 </subsection>
610 <subsection>
611 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
612 <body>
613
614 <p>
615 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
616 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
617 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
618 go to a new terminal and log in.
619 </p>
620
621 <p>
622 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
623 <c>links</c> to read it:
624 </p>
625
626 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
627 # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
628 </pre>
629
630 <p>
631 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
632 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
633 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
634 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
635 document):
636 </p>
637
638 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
639 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
640 </pre>
641
642 <p>
643 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
644 </p>
645
646 </body>
647 </subsection>
648 <subsection>
649 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
650 <body>
651
652 <p>
653 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
654 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
655 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
656 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
657 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
658 </p>
659
660 <p>
661 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
662 </p>
663
664 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
665 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
666 </pre>
667
668 <p>
669 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
670 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
671 </p>
672
673 </body>
674 </subsection>
675 </section>
676 </sections>

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