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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.25 2012/06/29 15:57:32 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13 Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>14</version>
17 <date>2012-07-01</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
21 <subsection>
22 <title>Introduction</title>
23 <body>
24
25 <p>
26 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
27 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
28 </p>
29
30 </body>
31 </subsection>
32 <subsection>
33 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
34 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
35
36 <table>
37 <tr>
38 <ti/>
39 <th>Minimal CD</th>
40 <th>LiveCD</th>
41 </tr>
42 <tr>
43 <th>CPU</th>
44 <ti>i486 or later</ti>
45 <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Memory</th>
49 <ti>256 MB</ti>
50 <ti>512 MB</ti>
51 </tr>
52 <tr>
53 <th>Diskspace</th>
54 <ti colspan="2">2.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
55 </tr>
56 <tr>
57 <th>Swap space</th>
58 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
59 </tr>
60 </table>
61
62 </body>
63 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
64
65 <table>
66 <tr>
67 <ti/>
68 <th>Minimal CD</th>
69 <th>LiveCD</th>
70 </tr>
71 <tr>
72 <th>CPU</th>
73 <ti colspan="2">
74 Any AMD64 CPU or <uri
75 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMT64#Intel_64">EM64T CPU</uri> (Core 2
76 Duo &amp; Quad processors are EM64T)
77 </ti>
78 </tr>
79 <tr>
80 <th>Memory</th>
81 <ti>256 MB</ti>
82 <ti>512 MB</ti>
83 </tr>
84 <tr>
85 <th>Diskspace</th>
86 <ti colspan="2">2.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
87 </tr>
88 <tr>
89 <th>Swap space</th>
90 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
91 </tr>
92 </table>
93
94 <p>
95 You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
96 AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
97 </p>
98
99 </body>
100 </subsection>
101 </section>
102 <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
103 <!-- START -->
104 <section>
105 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
106 <subsection>
107 <title>Introduction</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <p>
111 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
112 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
113 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
114 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
115 </p>
116
117 <p>
118 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
119 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet.
120 </p>
121
122 <!--
123 <impo>
124 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
125 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
126 instructions described in the <uri link="2008.0/">Gentoo 2008.0
127 Handbooks</uri>.
128 </impo>
129 -->
130 <!--
131 <p>
132 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
133 </p>
134
135 <ul>
136 <li>
137 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
138 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
139 continue with the Gentoo installation.
140 </li>
141 <li>
142 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
143 Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
144 based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
145 and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
146 </li>
147 </ul>
148
149 <p>
150 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
151 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
152 </p>
153 -->
154 </body>
155 </subsection>
156 <subsection>
157 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
158 <body>
159
160 <p>
161 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
162 takes up around <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
163 Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
164 connection.
165 </p>
166 <!--
167 <table>
168 <tr>
169 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
170 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
171 </tr>
172 <tr>
173 <th>+</th>
174 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
175 </tr>
176 <tr>
177 <th>-</th>
178 <ti>
179 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
180 is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
181 </ti>
182 </tr>
183 </table>
184 -->
185 </body>
186 </subsection>
187 <subsection>
188 <title>Gentoo Linux LiveDVDs</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 Every 6 months (give or take), a special DVD is crafted by the Gentoo Ten
193 project which can be used to install Gentoo with too. The instructions further
194 down this chapter target the Minimal Installation CDs so might be a bit
195 different. However, the LiveDVD (or any other bootable
196 Linux environment) supports getting a root prompt by just invoking <c>sudo
197 su -</c> or <c>sudo -i</c> on a terminal.
198 </p>
199
200 </body>
201 </subsection>
202 <!--
203 <subsection>
204 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
205 <body>
206
207 <p>
208 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
209 <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
210 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
211 connection.
212 </p>
213
214 <table>
215 <tr>
216 <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
217 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
218 </tr>
219 <tr>
220 <th>+</th>
221 <ti>
222 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
223 connection.
224 </ti>
225 </tr>
226 <tr>
227 <th>-</th>
228 <ti>Huge download</ti>
229 </tr>
230 </table>
231
232 </body>
233 </subsection>
234 -->
235 <subsection>
236 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
237 <body>
238
239 <p>
240 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
241 suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
242 manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
243 three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
244 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
245 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
246 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
247 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
248 </p>
249
250 <p>
251 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
252 id="release-dir"/>current-stage3/</path> on any of the <uri
253 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
254 on the LiveCD.
255 </p>
256
257 </body>
258 </subsection>
259 </section>
260 <!-- STOP -->
261 <section>
262 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
263 <subsection>
264 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
265 <body>
266
267 <p>
268 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
269 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
270 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
271 </p>
272
273 <p>
274 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
275 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
276 the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>current-iso/</path> directory.
277 </p>
278
279 <p>
280 Inside that directory you'll find ISO files. Those are full CD images which you
281 can write on a CD-R.
282 </p>
283
284 <p>
285 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
286 its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
287 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
288 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
289 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
290 </p>
291
292 <p>
293 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
294 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
295 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public keys whose
296 key ids can be found on the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/index.xml">release
297 engineering project site</uri>.
298 </p>
299
300 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
301 <comment>(... Substitute the key ids with those mentioned on the release engineering site ...)</comment>
302 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 96D8BF6D 2D182910 17072058</i>
303 </pre>
304
305 <p>
306 Now verify the signature:
307 </p>
308
309 <pre caption="Verify the files">
310 <comment>(Verify the cryptographic signature)</comment>
311 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;downloaded iso.DIGESTS.asc&gt;</i>
312 <comment>(Verify the checksum)</comment>
313 $ <i>sha1sum -c &lt;downloaded iso.DIGESTS.asc&gt;</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 <p>
317 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
318 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
319 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
320 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
321 </p>
322
323 <ul>
324 <li>
325 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
326 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
327 device path).
328 </li>
329 <li>
330 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>. Then you can locate
331 your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click <c>Start</c>.
332 </li>
333 </ul>
334
335 </body>
336 </subsection>
337 <subsection>
338 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
339 <body>
340
341 <p>
342 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
343 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
344 This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
345 the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
346 disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
347 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
348 </p>
349
350 <p>
351 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
352 boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
353 the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
354 by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
355 </p>
356
357 <p>
358 When the boot prompt is shown, you get the option of displaying the available
359 kernels (<c>F1</c>) and boot options (<c>F2</c>). If you make no selection
360 within 20 seconds (either displaying information or using a kernel) then the
361 LiveCD will fall back to booting from disk. This allows installations to reboot
362 and try out their installed environment without the need to remove the CD from
363 the tray (something well appreciated for remote installations).
364 </p>
365
366 <p>
367 Now we mentioned specifying a kernel. On our Installation CDs, we provide
368 several kernels. The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for
369 specific hardware needs and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable
370 framebuffer.
371 </p>
372
373 <p>
374 Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
375 </p>
376
377 <table>
378 <tr>
379 <th>Kernel</th>
380 <th>Description</th>
381 </tr>
382 <tr test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
383 <ti>gentoo</ti>
384 <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
385 </tr>
386 <tr test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
387 <ti>gentoo</ti>
388 <ti>
389 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUS (including NUMA support) and EM64T
390 CPUs
391 </ti>
392 </tr>
393 <tr>
394 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
395 <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
396 </tr>
397 <tr>
398 <ti>memtest86</ti>
399 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
400 </tr>
401 </table>
402
403 <p>
404 You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
405 (de)activate at will.
406 </p>
407
408 </body>
409
410 <body>
411 <include href="hb-install-kernelparams.xml"/>
412 </body>
413
414 <body>
415
416 <note>
417 The CD will check for "no*" options before "do*" options, so that you can
418 override any option in the exact order you specify.
419 </note>
420
421 <p>
422 Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
423 <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
424 to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
425 parameters:
426 </p>
427
428 <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
429 boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
430 </pre>
431
432 <p>
433 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
434 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
435 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
436 is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
437 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
438 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
439 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
440 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
441 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
442 </p>
443
444 <p>
445 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
446 </p>
447
448 </body>
449 </subsection>
450
451 <subsection>
452 <include href="hb-install-bootconfig.xml"/>
453 </subsection>
454
455 </section>
456 </sections>

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