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2006.1 networked docs are in. portage handbook still untouched per separate bugs. thanks to all the hard work, guys. blame me if something is wrong (and please fix quickly) :)

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.1 2006/08/13 08:43:00 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>4.0</version>
12 <date>2006-08-30</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <ti/>
34 <th>Minimal CD</th>
35 <th>LiveCD</th>
36 </tr>
37 <tr>
38 <th>CPU</th>
39 <ti>i486 or later</ti>
40 <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
41 </tr>
42 <tr>
43 <th>Memory</th>
44 <ti>64 MB</ti>
45 <ti>128 MB</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Diskspace</th>
49 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
50 </tr>
51 <tr>
52 <th>Swap space</th>
53 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
54 </tr>
55 </table>
56
57 </body>
58 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
59
60 <table>
61 <tr>
62 <th>CPU</th>
63 <ti>Any AMD64 CPU</ti>
64 </tr>
65 <tr>
66 <th>Memory</th>
67 <ti>64 MB</ti>
68 </tr>
69 <tr>
70 <th>Diskspace</th>
71 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
72 </tr>
73 <tr>
74 <th>Swap space</th>
75 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
76 </tr>
77 </table>
78
79 <p>
80 You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
81 AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 </section>
87 <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
88 <!-- START -->
89 <section>
90 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
91 <subsection>
92 <title>Introduction</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
97 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
98 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
99 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
104 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
105 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
106 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
107 latest version of the available packages.
108 </p>
109
110 <impo>
111 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
112 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
113 instructions described in the <uri link="2006.1/">Gentoo 2006.1
114 Handbooks</uri>.
115 </impo>
116
117 <p>
118 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
119 </p>
120
121 <ul>
122 <li>
123 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
124 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
125 continue with the Gentoo installation.
126 </li>
127 <li>
128 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
129 Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
130 based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
131 and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
132 </li>
133 </ul>
134
135 <p>
136 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
137 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
138 </p>
139
140 </body>
141 </subsection>
142 <subsection>
143 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
144 <body>
145
146 <p>
147 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
148 takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
149 Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
150 connection.
151 </p>
152
153 <table>
154 <tr>
155 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
156 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
157 </tr>
158 <tr>
159 <th>+</th>
160 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
161 </tr>
162 <tr>
163 <th>-</th>
164 <ti>
165 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
166 is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
167 </ti>
168 </tr>
169 </table>
170
171 </body>
172 </subsection>
173 <subsection>
174 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
175 <body>
176
177 <p>
178 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
179 <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
180 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
181 connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
182 you are currently installing Gentoo on.
183 </p>
184
185 <table>
186 <tr>
187 <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
188 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
189 </tr>
190 <tr>
191 <th>+</th>
192 <ti>
193 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
194 connection.
195 </ti>
196 </tr>
197 <tr>
198 <th>-</th>
199 <ti>Huge download</ti>
200 </tr>
201 </table>
202
203 </body>
204 </subsection>
205 <subsection>
206 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
207 <body>
208
209 <p>
210 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
211 suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
212 manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
213 three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
214 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
215 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
216 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
217 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
218 </p>
219
220 <p>
221 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
222 id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
223 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
224 on the LiveCD.
225 </p>
226
227 </body>
228 </subsection>
229 </section>
230 <!-- STOP -->
231 <section>
232 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
233 <subsection>
234 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
235 <body>
236
237 <p>
238 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
239 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
240 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
241 </p>
242
243 <p>
244 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
245 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
246 the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
247 </p>
248
249 <p>
250 Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
251 can write on a CD-R.
252 </p>
253
254 <p>
255 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
256 its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
257 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
258 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
259 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
264 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
265 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
266 </p>
267
268 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
269 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
270 </pre>
271
272 <p>
273 Now verify the signature:
274 </p>
275
276 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
277 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
278 </pre>
279
280 <p>
281 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
282 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
283 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
284 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
285 </p>
286
287 <ul>
288 <li>
289 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
290 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
291 device path).
292 </li>
293 <li>
294 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
295 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
296 <c>Start</c>.
297 </li>
298 </ul>
299
300 </body>
301 </subsection>
302 <subsection>
303 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
304 <body>
305
306 <p>
307 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
308 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
309 This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
310 the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
311 disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
312 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
313 </p>
314
315 <p>
316 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
317 boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
318 the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
319 by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
320 </p>
321
322 <p>
323 Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
324 The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
325 and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
326 </p>
327
328 <p>
329 Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
330 </p>
331
332 </body>
333 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
334
335 <table>
336 <tr>
337 <th>Kernel</th>
338 <th>Description</th>
339 </tr>
340 <tr>
341 <ti>gentoo</ti>
342 <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
343 </tr>
344 <tr>
345 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
346 <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
347 </tr>
348 <tr>
349 <ti>memtest86</ti>
350 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
351 </tr>
352 </table>
353
354 </body>
355 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
356 <table>
357 <tr>
358 <th>Kernel</th>
359 <th>Description</th>
360 </tr>
361 <tr>
362 <ti>gentoo</ti>
363 <ti>
364 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUS (including NUMA support) and EM64T
365 CPUs
366 </ti>
367 </tr>
368 <tr>
369 <ti>memtest86</ti>
370 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
371 </tr>
372 </table>
373
374 </body>
375 <body>
376
377 <p>
378 You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
379 (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
380 when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
381 </p>
382
383 <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
384 - agpgart loads agpgart (use if you have graphic problems,lockups)
385 - acpi=on loads support for ACPI firmware
386 - ide=nodma force disabling of DMA for malfunctioning IDE devices
387 - doscsi scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)
388 - dopcmcia starts pcmcia service for PCMCIA cdroms
389 - nofirewire disables firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)
390 - nokeymap disables keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts
391 - docache cache the entire runtime portion of cd in RAM, allows you
392 to umount /mnt/cdrom to mount another cdrom.
393 - nodetect causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run
394 - nousb disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug
395 - nodhcp dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected
396 - nohotplug disables loading hotplug service
397 - noapic disable apic (try if having hardware problems nics,scsi,etc)
398 - noevms disable loading of EVMS2 modules
399 - nolvm2 disable loading of LVM2 modules
400 - hdx=stroke allows you to partition the whole harddrive even when your BIOS
401 can't handle large harddrives
402 - noload=module1,[module2,[...]]
403 disable loading of specific kernel modules
404 </pre>
405
406 <p>
407 Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
408 <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
409 to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
410 parameters:
411 </p>
412
413 <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
414 boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
415 </pre>
416
417 <p>
418 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
419 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
420 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
421 is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
422 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
423 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
424 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
425 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
426 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
427 </p>
428
429 <p>
430 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
431 </p>
432
433 </body>
434 </subsection>
435 <subsection id="hardware">
436 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
437 <body>
438
439 <p>
440 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
441 and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
442 majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
443 auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
444 your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
445 manually.
446 </p>
447
448 <p>
449 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
450 certain kinds of network interfaces):
451 </p>
452
453 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
454 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
455 </pre>
456
457 <p>
458 If you need PCMCIA support, you should start the <c>pcmcia</c> init script:
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption="Starting the PCMCIA init script">
462 # <i>/etc/init.d/pcmcia start</i>
463 </pre>
464
465 </body>
466 </subsection>
467 <subsection>
468 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
469 <body>
470
471 <p>
472 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
473 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
474 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
475 more precise impression):
476 </p>
477
478 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
479 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
480 </pre>
481
482 <p>
483 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
484 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
485 disk):
486 </p>
487
488 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
489 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
490 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
491
492 <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
493 # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
494 </pre>
495
496 </body>
497 </subsection>
498 <subsection id="useraccounts">
499 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
500 <body>
501
502 <p>
503 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
504 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
505 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
506 the root password.
507 </p>
508
509 <p>
510 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
511 </p>
512
513 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
514 # <i>passwd</i>
515 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
516 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
517 </pre>
518
519 <p>
520 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
521 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
522 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
523 </p>
524
525 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
526 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
527 # <i>passwd john</i>
528 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
529 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
530 </pre>
531
532 <p>
533 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
534 <c>su</c>:
535 </p>
536
537 <pre caption="Changing user id">
538 # <i>su - john</i>
539 </pre>
540
541 </body>
542 </subsection>
543 <subsection>
544 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
545 <body>
546
547 <p>
548 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
549 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
550 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
551 go to a new terminal and log in.
552 </p>
553
554 <p>
555 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
556 <c>links</c> to read it:
557 </p>
558
559 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
560 # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
561 </pre>
562
563 <p>
564 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
565 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
566 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
567 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
568 document):
569 </p>
570
571 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
572 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
573 </pre>
574
575 <p>
576 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
577 </p>
578
579 </body>
580 </subsection>
581 <subsection>
582 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
583 <body>
584
585 <p>
586 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
587 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
588 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
589 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
590 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
591 </p>
592
593 <p>
594 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
595 </p>
596
597 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
598 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
599 </pre>
600
601 <p>
602 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
603 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
604 </p>
605
606 </body>
607 </subsection>
608 </section>
609 </sections>

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