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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.6 2007/03/19 10:53:21 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13 Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD although installation through the
14 Installer LiveCD is possible as well.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>5.0</version>
18 <date>2007-05-07</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>Introduction</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
28 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
35 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
36
37 <table>
38 <tr>
39 <ti/>
40 <th>Minimal CD</th>
41 <th>LiveCD</th>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>CPU</th>
45 <ti>i486 or later</ti>
46 <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
47 </tr>
48 <tr>
49 <th>Memory</th>
50 <ti>64 MB</ti>
51 <ti>128 MB</ti>
52 </tr>
53 <tr>
54 <th>Diskspace</th>
55 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
56 </tr>
57 <tr>
58 <th>Swap space</th>
59 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
60 </tr>
61 </table>
62
63 </body>
64 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
65
66 <table>
67 <tr>
68 <th>CPU</th>
69 <ti>Any AMD64 CPU</ti>
70 </tr>
71 <tr>
72 <th>Memory</th>
73 <ti>64 MB</ti>
74 </tr>
75 <tr>
76 <th>Diskspace</th>
77 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
78 </tr>
79 <tr>
80 <th>Swap space</th>
81 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
82 </tr>
83 </table>
84
85 <p>
86 You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
87 AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
88 </p>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 </section>
93 <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
94 <!-- START -->
95 <section>
96 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
97 <subsection>
98 <title>Introduction</title>
99 <body>
100
101 <p>
102 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
103 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
104 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
105 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
106 </p>
107
108 <p>
109 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
110 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
111 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
112 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
113 latest version of the available packages.
114 </p>
115
116 <impo>
117 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
118 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
119 instructions described in the <uri link="2007.0/">Gentoo 2007.0
120 Handbooks</uri>.
121 </impo>
122
123 <p>
124 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
125 </p>
126
127 <ul>
128 <li>
129 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
130 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
131 continue with the Gentoo installation.
132 </li>
133 <li>
134 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
135 Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
136 based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
137 and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
138 </li>
139 </ul>
140
141 <p>
142 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
143 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
144 </p>
145
146 </body>
147 </subsection>
148 <subsection>
149 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
150 <body>
151
152 <p>
153 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
154 takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
155 Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
156 connection.
157 </p>
158
159 <table>
160 <tr>
161 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
162 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
163 </tr>
164 <tr>
165 <th>+</th>
166 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
167 </tr>
168 <tr>
169 <th>-</th>
170 <ti>
171 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
172 is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
173 </ti>
174 </tr>
175 </table>
176
177 </body>
178 </subsection>
179 <subsection>
180 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
181 <body>
182
183 <p>
184 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
185 <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
186 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
187 connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
188 you are currently installing Gentoo on.
189 </p>
190
191 <table>
192 <tr>
193 <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
194 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
195 </tr>
196 <tr>
197 <th>+</th>
198 <ti>
199 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
200 connection.
201 </ti>
202 </tr>
203 <tr>
204 <th>-</th>
205 <ti>Huge download</ti>
206 </tr>
207 </table>
208
209 </body>
210 </subsection>
211 <subsection>
212 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
213 <body>
214
215 <p>
216 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
217 suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
218 manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
219 three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
220 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
221 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
222 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
223 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
224 </p>
225
226 <p>
227 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
228 id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
229 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
230 on the LiveCD.
231 </p>
232
233 </body>
234 </subsection>
235 </section>
236 <!-- STOP -->
237 <section>
238 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
239 <subsection>
240 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
241 <body>
242
243 <p>
244 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
245 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
246 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
247 </p>
248
249 <p>
250 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
251 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
252 the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
257 can write on a CD-R.
258 </p>
259
260 <p>
261 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
262 its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
263 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
264 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
265 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
266 </p>
267
268 <p>
269 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
270 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
271 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
272 </p>
273
274 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
275 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
276 </pre>
277
278 <p>
279 Now verify the signature:
280 </p>
281
282 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
283 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
284 </pre>
285
286 <p>
287 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
288 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
289 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
290 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
291 </p>
292
293 <ul>
294 <li>
295 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
296 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
297 device path).
298 </li>
299 <li>
300 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
301 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
302 <c>Start</c>.
303 </li>
304 </ul>
305
306 </body>
307 </subsection>
308 <subsection>
309 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
310 <body>
311
312 <p>
313 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
314 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
315 This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
316 the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
317 disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
318 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
319 </p>
320
321 <p>
322 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
323 boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
324 the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
325 by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
326 </p>
327
328 <p>
329 Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
330 The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
331 and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
332 </p>
333
334 <p>
335 Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
336 </p>
337
338 </body>
339 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
340
341 <table>
342 <tr>
343 <th>Kernel</th>
344 <th>Description</th>
345 </tr>
346 <tr>
347 <ti>gentoo</ti>
348 <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
349 </tr>
350 <tr>
351 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
352 <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
353 </tr>
354 <tr>
355 <ti>memtest86</ti>
356 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
357 </tr>
358 </table>
359
360 </body>
361 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
362 <table>
363 <tr>
364 <th>Kernel</th>
365 <th>Description</th>
366 </tr>
367 <tr>
368 <ti>gentoo</ti>
369 <ti>
370 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUs (including NUMA support) and EM64T
371 CPUs
372 </ti>
373 </tr>
374 <tr>
375 <ti>memtest86</ti>
376 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
377 </tr>
378 </table>
379
380 </body>
381 <body>
382
383 <p>
384 You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
385 (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
386 when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
387 </p>
388
389 <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
390 - agpgart loads agpgart (use if you have graphic problems,lockups)
391 - acpi=on loads support for ACPI firmware
392 - ide=nodma force disabling of DMA for malfunctioning IDE devices
393 - doscsi scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)
394 - dopcmcia starts pcmcia service for PCMCIA cdroms
395 - nofirewire disables firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)
396 - nokeymap disables keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts
397 - docache cache the entire runtime portion of cd in RAM, allows you
398 to umount /mnt/cdrom to mount another cdrom.
399 - nodetect causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run
400 - nousb disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug
401 - nodhcp dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected
402 - nohotplug disables loading hotplug service
403 - noapic disable apic (try if having hardware problems nics,scsi,etc)
404 - noevms disable loading of EVMS2 modules
405 - nolvm2 disable loading of LVM2 modules
406 - hdx=stroke allows you to partition the whole harddrive even when your BIOS
407 can't handle large harddrives
408 - noload=module1,[module2,[...]]
409 disable loading of specific kernel modules
410 </pre>
411
412 <p>
413 Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
414 <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
415 to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
416 parameters:
417 </p>
418
419 <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
420 boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
421 </pre>
422
423 <p>
424 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
425 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
426 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
427 is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
428 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
429 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
430 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
431 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
432 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
433 </p>
434
435 <p>
436 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
437 </p>
438
439 </body>
440 </subsection>
441 <subsection id="hardware">
442 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
443 <body>
444
445 <p>
446 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
447 and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
448 majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
449 auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
450 your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
451 manually.
452 </p>
453
454 <p>
455 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
456 certain kinds of network interfaces):
457 </p>
458
459 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
460 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
461 </pre>
462
463 </body>
464 </subsection>
465 <subsection>
466 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
471 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
472 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
473 more precise impression):
474 </p>
475
476 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
477 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
478 </pre>
479
480 <p>
481 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
482 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
483 disk):
484 </p>
485
486 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
487 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
488 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
489
490 <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
491 # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
492 </pre>
493
494 </body>
495 </subsection>
496 <subsection id="useraccounts">
497 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
498 <body>
499
500 <p>
501 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
502 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
503 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
504 the root password.
505 </p>
506
507 <p>
508 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
512 # <i>passwd</i>
513 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
514 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
519 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
520 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
521 </p>
522
523 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
524 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
525 # <i>passwd john</i>
526 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
527 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
528 </pre>
529
530 <p>
531 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
532 <c>su</c>:
533 </p>
534
535 <pre caption="Changing user id">
536 # <i>su - john</i>
537 </pre>
538
539 </body>
540 </subsection>
541 <subsection>
542 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
543 <body>
544
545 <p>
546 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
547 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
548 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
549 go to a new terminal and log in.
550 </p>
551
552 <p>
553 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
554 <c>links</c> to read it:
555 </p>
556
557 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
558 # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
559 </pre>
560
561 <p>
562 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
563 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
564 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
565 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
566 document):
567 </p>
568
569 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
570 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
571 </pre>
572
573 <p>
574 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
575 </p>
576
577 </body>
578 </subsection>
579 <subsection>
580 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
581 <body>
582
583 <p>
584 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
585 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
586 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
587 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
588 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
589 </p>
590
591 <p>
592 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
593 </p>
594
595 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
596 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
597 </pre>
598
599 <p>
600 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
601 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
602 </p>
603
604 </body>
605 </subsection>
606 </section>
607 </sections>

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