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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.8 2007/05/18 09:49:47 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13 Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD although installation through the
14 Installer LiveCD is possible as well.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>5.2</version>
18 <date>2007-06-29</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>Introduction</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
28 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
35 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
36
37 <table>
38 <tr>
39 <ti/>
40 <th>Minimal CD</th>
41 <th>LiveCD</th>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>CPU</th>
45 <ti>i486 or later</ti>
46 <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
47 </tr>
48 <tr>
49 <th>Memory</th>
50 <ti>64 MB</ti>
51 <ti>256 MB</ti>
52 </tr>
53 <tr>
54 <th>Diskspace</th>
55 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
56 </tr>
57 <tr>
58 <th>Swap space</th>
59 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
60 </tr>
61 </table>
62
63 </body>
64 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
65
66 <table>
67 <tr>
68 <ti/>
69 <th>Minimal CD</th>
70 <th>LiveCD</th>
71 </tr>
72 <tr>
73 <th>CPU</th>
74 <ti colspan="2">Any AMD64 CPU or EM64T CPU</ti>
75 </tr>
76 <tr>
77 <th>Memory</th>
78 <ti>64 MB</ti>
79 <ti>256 MB</ti>
80 </tr>
81 <tr>
82 <th>Diskspace</th>
83 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
84 </tr>
85 <tr>
86 <th>Swap space</th>
87 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
88 </tr>
89 </table>
90
91 <p>
92 You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
93 AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
94 </p>
95
96 </body>
97 </subsection>
98 </section>
99 <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
100 <!-- START -->
101 <section>
102 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
103 <subsection>
104 <title>Introduction</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <p>
108 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
109 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
110 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
111 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
112 </p>
113
114 <p>
115 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
116 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
117 two Installation CDs which are equally suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
118 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
119 latest version of the available packages.
120 </p>
121
122 <impo>
123 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
124 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
125 instructions described in the <uri link="2007.0/">Gentoo 2007.0
126 Handbooks</uri>.
127 </impo>
128
129 <p>
130 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
131 </p>
132
133 <ul>
134 <li>
135 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
136 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
137 continue with the Gentoo installation.
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
141 Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
142 based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
143 and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
144 </li>
145 </ul>
146
147 <p>
148 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
149 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
150 </p>
151
152 </body>
153 </subsection>
154 <subsection>
155 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
156 <body>
157
158 <p>
159 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
160 takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
161 Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
162 connection.
163 </p>
164
165 <table>
166 <tr>
167 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
168 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
169 </tr>
170 <tr>
171 <th>+</th>
172 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
173 </tr>
174 <tr>
175 <th>-</th>
176 <ti>
177 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
178 is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
179 </ti>
180 </tr>
181 </table>
182
183 </body>
184 </subsection>
185 <subsection>
186 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
187 <body>
188
189 <p>
190 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
191 <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
192 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
193 connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
194 you are currently installing Gentoo on.
195 </p>
196
197 <table>
198 <tr>
199 <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
200 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
201 </tr>
202 <tr>
203 <th>+</th>
204 <ti>
205 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
206 connection.
207 </ti>
208 </tr>
209 <tr>
210 <th>-</th>
211 <ti>Huge download</ti>
212 </tr>
213 </table>
214
215 </body>
216 </subsection>
217 <subsection>
218 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <p>
222 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
223 suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
224 manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
225 three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
226 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
227 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
228 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
229 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
230 </p>
231
232 <p>
233 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
234 id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
235 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
236 on the LiveCD.
237 </p>
238
239 </body>
240 </subsection>
241 </section>
242 <!-- STOP -->
243 <section>
244 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
245 <subsection>
246 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
247 <body>
248
249 <p>
250 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
251 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
252 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
257 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
258 the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
259 </p>
260
261 <p>
262 Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
263 can write on a CD-R.
264 </p>
265
266 <p>
267 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
268 its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
269 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
270 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
271 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
272 </p>
273
274 <p>
275 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
276 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
277 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
281 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
282 </pre>
283
284 <p>
285 Now verify the signature:
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
289 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
290 </pre>
291
292 <p>
293 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
294 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
295 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
296 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
297 </p>
298
299 <ul>
300 <li>
301 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
302 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
303 device path).
304 </li>
305 <li>
306 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>. Then you can locate
307 your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click <c>Start</c>.
308 </li>
309 </ul>
310
311 </body>
312 </subsection>
313 <subsection>
314 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
315 <body>
316
317 <p>
318 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
319 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
320 This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
321 the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
322 disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
323 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
324 </p>
325
326 <p>
327 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
328 boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
329 the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
330 by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
331 </p>
332
333 <p>
334 Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
335 The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
336 and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
337 </p>
338
339 <p>
340 Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
341 </p>
342
343 </body>
344 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
345
346 <table>
347 <tr>
348 <th>Kernel</th>
349 <th>Description</th>
350 </tr>
351 <tr>
352 <ti>gentoo</ti>
353 <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
354 </tr>
355 <tr>
356 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
357 <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
358 </tr>
359 <tr>
360 <ti>memtest86</ti>
361 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
362 </tr>
363 </table>
364
365 </body>
366 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
367 <table>
368 <tr>
369 <th>Kernel</th>
370 <th>Description</th>
371 </tr>
372 <tr>
373 <ti>gentoo</ti>
374 <ti>
375 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUs (including NUMA support) and EM64T
376 CPUs
377 </ti>
378 </tr>
379 <tr>
380 <ti>memtest86</ti>
381 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
382 </tr>
383 </table>
384
385 </body>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
390 (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
391 when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
392 </p>
393
394 <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
395 - agpgart loads agpgart (use if you have graphic problems,lockups)
396 - acpi=on loads support for ACPI firmware
397 - ide=nodma force disabling of DMA for malfunctioning IDE devices
398 - doscsi scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)
399 - dopcmcia starts pcmcia service for PCMCIA cdroms
400 - nofirewire disables firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)
401 - nokeymap disables keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts
402 - docache cache the entire runtime portion of cd in RAM, allows you
403 to umount /mnt/cdrom to mount another cdrom.
404 - nodetect causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run
405 - nousb disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug
406 - nodhcp dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected
407 - nohotplug disables loading hotplug service
408 - noapic disable apic (try if having hardware problems nics,scsi,etc)
409 - noevms disable loading of EVMS2 modules
410 - nolvm2 disable loading of LVM2 modules
411 - hdx=stroke allows you to partition the whole harddrive even when your BIOS
412 can't handle large harddrives
413 - noload=module1,[module2,[...]]
414 disable loading of specific kernel modules
415 </pre>
416
417 <p>
418 Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
419 <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
420 to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
421 parameters:
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
425 boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
426 </pre>
427
428 <p>
429 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
430 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
431 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
432 is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
433 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
434 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
435 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
436 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
437 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
438 </p>
439
440 <p>
441 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
442 </p>
443
444 </body>
445 </subsection>
446 <subsection id="hardware">
447 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
448 <body>
449
450 <p>
451 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
452 and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
453 majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
454 auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
455 your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
456 manually.
457 </p>
458
459 <p>
460 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
461 certain kinds of network interfaces):
462 </p>
463
464 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
465 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
466 </pre>
467
468 </body>
469 </subsection>
470 <subsection>
471 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
472 <body>
473
474 <p>
475 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
476 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
477 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
478 more precise impression):
479 </p>
480
481 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
482 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
483 </pre>
484
485 <p>
486 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
487 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
488 disk):
489 </p>
490
491 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
492 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
493 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
494
495 <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
496 # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
497 </pre>
498
499 </body>
500 </subsection>
501 <subsection id="useraccounts">
502 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
503 <body>
504
505 <p>
506 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
507 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
508 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
509 the root password.
510 </p>
511
512 <p>
513 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
514 </p>
515
516 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
517 # <i>passwd</i>
518 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
519 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
520 </pre>
521
522 <p>
523 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
524 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
525 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
526 </p>
527
528 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
529 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
530 # <i>passwd john</i>
531 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
532 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
533 </pre>
534
535 <p>
536 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
537 <c>su</c>:
538 </p>
539
540 <pre caption="Changing user id">
541 # <i>su - john</i>
542 </pre>
543
544 </body>
545 </subsection>
546 <subsection>
547 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
548 <body>
549
550 <p>
551 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
552 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
553 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
554 go to a new terminal and log in.
555 </p>
556
557 <p>
558 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
559 <c>links</c> to read it:
560 </p>
561
562 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
563 # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
564 </pre>
565
566 <p>
567 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
568 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
569 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
570 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
571 document):
572 </p>
573
574 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
575 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
576 </pre>
577
578 <p>
579 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
580 </p>
581
582 </body>
583 </subsection>
584 <subsection>
585 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
586 <body>
587
588 <p>
589 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
590 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
591 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
592 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
593 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
594 </p>
595
596 <p>
597 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
598 </p>
599
600 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
601 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
602 </pre>
603
604 <p>
605 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
606 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
607 </p>
608
609 </body>
610 </subsection>
611 </section>
612 </sections>

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