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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.35 2010/07/21 00:13:54 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.48 2012/09/11 22:49:21 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter 12The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13explains how to configure your kernel. 13explains how to configure your kernel.
14</abstract> 14</abstract>
15 15
16<version>7.5</version> 16<version>18</version>
17<date>2010-07-17</date> 17<date>2012-09-11</date>
18 18
19<section> 19<section>
20<title>Timezone</title> 20<title>Timezone</title>
21<body> 21<body>
22 22
23<p> 23<p>
24You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 24You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy 25located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the 26it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not 27<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact 28indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29GMT+8. 29GMT+8.
30</p> 30</p>
31 31
32<pre caption="Setting the timezone information"> 32<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i> 33# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment> 34<comment>(Suppose you want to use Europe/Brussels)</comment>
35# <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i> 35# <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
36<comment>(Next set the timezone)</comment>
37# <i>echo "Europe/Brussels" &gt; /etc/timezone</i>
36</pre> 38</pre>
37 39
38</body> 40</body>
39</section> 41</section>
40<section> 42<section>
41<title>Installing the Sources</title> 43<title>Installing the Sources</title>
42<subsection> 44<subsection>
43<title>Choosing a Kernel</title> 45<title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44<body> 46<body>
45 47
46<p> 48<p>
47The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the 49The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its 50layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is 51users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel 52available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51Guide</uri>. 53Guide</uri>.
52</p> 54</p>
53 55
54<p> 56<p>
55For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> 57For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56(kernel source patched for extra features). 58(kernel source patched for extra features).
57</p> 59</p>
58 60
59<p> 61<p>
60Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>. 62Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61</p> 63</p>
62 64
63<pre caption="Installing a kernel source"> 65<pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64# <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i> 66# <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65</pre> 67</pre>
66 68
73 75
74<pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink"> 76<pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75# <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i> 77# <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/> 78lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77</pre> 79</pre>
78 80
79<p> 81<p>
80Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use 82Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81<c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the 83<c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is 84Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83the best way to optimize your environment. 85the best way to optimize your environment.
84</p> 86</p>
85 87
86<p> 88<p>
87If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri 89If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use 90link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89<c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using 91<c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90genkernel</uri> instead. 92genkernel</uri> instead.
91</p> 93</p>
92 94
93</body> 95</body>
94</subsection> 96</subsection>
95</section> 97</section>
96<section id="manual"> 98<section id="manual">
97<title>Default: Manual Configuration</title> 99<title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98<subsection> 100<subsection>
99<title>Introduction</title> 101<title>Introduction</title>
100<body> 102<body>
101 103
102<p> 104<p>
103Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a 105Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a 106Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;) 107couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106</p> 108</p>
107 109
108<p> 110<p>
109However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start 111However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging 112configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now 113pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely 114be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open 115ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114/sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run 116/sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115<c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same. 117<c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD 118You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable). 119uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118</p> 120</p>
119 121
120<p> 122<p>
121Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This 123Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu. 124will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123</p> 125</p>
124 126
125<pre caption="Invoking menuconfig"> 127<pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i> 128# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127# <i>make menuconfig</i> 129# <i>make menuconfig</i>
128</pre> 130</pre>
129 131
130<p> 132<p>
131You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some 133You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
158multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so this option is 160multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so this option is
159required. 161required.
160</p> 162</p>
161 163
162<note> 164<note>
163If you plan to use a non-multilib profile (for a pure 64-bit system), then you 165If you plan to use a non-multilib profile (for a pure 64-bit system), then you
164don't have to select IA32 Emulation support. However, you'll also need to follow 166don't have to select IA32 Emulation support. However, you'll also need to follow
165the <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=6#doc_chap2_sect2">instructions</uri> for 167the <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=6#doc_chap2_sect2">instructions</uri> for
166switching to a <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-amd64-faq.xml">non-multilib 168switching to a <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-amd64-faq.xml">non-multilib
167profile</uri>, as well as choosing the correct <uri 169profile</uri>, as well as choosing the correct <uri
168link="?part=1&amp;chap=10#doc_chap2_sect2">bootloader</uri>. 170link="?part=1&amp;chap=10#doc_chap2_sect2">bootloader</uri>.
169</note> 171</note>
170 172
171<pre caption="Selecting processor type and features"> 173<pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
172Processor type and features ---> 174Processor type and features --->
173 [ ] Machine Check / overheating reporting 175 [ ] Machine Check / overheating reporting
174 [ ] Intel MCE Features 176 [ ] Intel MCE Features
175 [ ] AMD MCE Features 177 [ ] AMD MCE Features
176 Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) ---> 178 Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
177 ( ) Opteron/Athlon64/Hammer/K8 179 ( ) Opteron/Athlon64/Hammer/K8
178 ( ) Intel P4 / older Netburst based Xeon 180 ( ) Intel P4 / older Netburst based Xeon
179 ( ) Core 2/newer Xeon 181 ( ) Core 2/newer Xeon
180 ( ) Intel Atom 182 ( ) Intel Atom
181 ( ) Generic-x86-64 183 ( ) Generic-x86-64
182Executable file formats / Emulations ---> 184Executable file formats / Emulations --->
183 [*] IA32 Emulation 185 [*] IA32 Emulation
184</pre> 186</pre>
185 187
186</body> 188</body>
187<body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'"> 189<body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
188 190
189<p> 191<p>
190Now select the correct processor family: 192Now select the correct processor family:
191</p> 193</p>
192 194
193<pre caption="Selecting correct processor family"> 195<pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
194Processor type and features ---&gt; 196Processor type and features ---&gt;
195 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment> 197 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
196 (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family 198 (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
197</pre> 199</pre>
198 200
199</body> 201</body>
200<body> 202<body>
201 203
202<p> 204<p>
205Next select <e>Maintain a devtmpfs file system to mount at /dev</e> so that
206critical device files are already available early in the boot process.
207</p>
208
209<pre caption="Enabling devtmpfs support">
210Device Drivers ---&gt;
211 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
212 [*] Maintain a devtmpfs filesystem to mount at /dev
213 [ ] Automount devtmpfs at /dev, after the kernel mounted the rootfs
214</pre>
215
216<p>
203Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use. 217Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
204<e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be 218<e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
205able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc 219able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
206file system</c>. 220file system</c>.
207</p> 221</p>
208 222
209<pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems"> 223<pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
210File systems ---&gt; 224File systems ---&gt;
225<comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
226 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
227 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
228 &lt;*&gt; The Extended 4 (ext4) filesystem
229 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
230 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
231 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
232 ...
211 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt; 233 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
212 [*] /proc file system support 234 [*] /proc file system support
213 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs) 235 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
214 236
215<comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment> 237<comment>(Enable GPT partition label support if you used that previously)</comment>
216 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support 238 Partition Types ---&gt;
217 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support 239 [*] Advanced partition selection
218 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support 240 ...
219 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support 241 [*] EFI GUID Partition support
220 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
221</pre> 242</pre>
222 243
223<p> 244<p>
224If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up 245If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
225modem, you will need the following options in the kernel: 246modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
226</p> 247</p>
227 248
228<pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers"> 249<pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
229Device Drivers ---&gt; 250Device Drivers ---&gt;
230 Networking Support ---&gt; 251 Network device support ---&gt;
231 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support 252 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
232 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports 253 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
233 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports 254 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
234</pre> 255</pre>
235 256
236<p> 257<p>
237The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither 258The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
238does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c> 259does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
239when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE. 260when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
240</p> 261</p>
241 262
242<p> 263<p>
243If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your 264If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
244ethernet card. 265ethernet card.
245</p> 266</p>
276<pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices"> 297<pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
277Device Drivers ---&gt; 298Device Drivers ---&gt;
278 [*] HID Devices ---&gt; 299 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
279 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support 300 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
280</pre> 301</pre>
281 302
282</body> 303</body>
283<body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'"> 304<body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
284 305
285<p> 306<p>
286If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable 307If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
287support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system: 308support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
288</p> 309</p>
289 310
290<pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support"> 311<pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
291Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt; 312Bus options (PCI etc.) ---&gt;
292 PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt; 313 PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
293 &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support 314 &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
294<comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment> 315<comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
295 &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support 316 &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
296 [*] 32-bit CardBus support 317 [*] 32-bit CardBus support
297<comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment> 318<comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
298 --- PC-card bridges 319 *** PC-card bridges ***
299 &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW) 320 &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
300 &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW) 321 &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
301 &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW) 322 &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
302 &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
303 &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
304</pre> 323</pre>
305 324
306<p> 325<p>
307When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri 326When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
308link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>. 327link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
309</p> 328</p>
310 329
311</body> 330</body>
312</subsection> 331</subsection>
313<subsection id="compiling"> 332<subsection id="compiling">
314<title>Compiling and Installing</title> 333<title>Compiling and Installing</title>
315<body> 334<body>
316 335
317<p> 336<p>
318Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit 337Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
319the configuration and start the compilation process: 338the configuration and start the compilation process:
320</p> 339</p>
321 340
322<pre caption="Compiling the kernel"> 341<pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
323# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i> 342# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
324</pre> 343</pre>
325 344
326<p> 345<p>
327When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to 346When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
328<path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel 347<path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
329choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your 348choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
330bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the 349bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
331name and version of your kernel. 350name and version of your kernel.
332</p> 351</p>
333 352
334<pre caption="Installing the kernel"> 353<pre caption="Installing the kernel">
335# <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i> 354# <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
336</pre> 355</pre>
337 356
338<p>
339Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
340</p>
341
342</body> 357</body>
358</subsection>
343</subsection> 359<subsection>
360<include href="hb-install-initramfs.xml"/>
361</subsection>
362
344</section> 363</section>
345<section id="genkernel"> 364<section id="genkernel">
346<title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title> 365<title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
347<body> 366<body>
348 367
349<p> 368<p>
350If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c> 369If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
351script to configure your kernel for you. 370script to configure your kernel for you.
352</p> 371</p>
353 372
354<p> 373<p>
355Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your 374Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
356kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for 375kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
357you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the 376you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
358way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use 377way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
359<c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all 378<c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
360your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because 379your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
361genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal 380genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
362solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels. 381solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
363</p> 382</p>
364 383
365<p> 384<p>
366Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild: 385Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
367</p> 386</p>
368 387
369<pre caption="Emerging genkernel"> 388<pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
370# <i>emerge genkernel</i> 389# <i>emerge genkernel</i>
371</pre>
372
373<p>
374Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
375location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
376</p>
377
378<pre test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'" caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
379# <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86/kernel-config</i>
380</pre>
381
382<pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
383# <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86_64/kernel-config</i>
384</pre> 390</pre>
385 391
386<p> 392<p>
387Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware 393Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
388though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all 394though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
389hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish! 395hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
390</p> 396</p>
391 397
392<p> 398<p>
393Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you 399Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
394might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig 400might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
395all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. 401all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
396<e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add 402<e>not</e> as a module). Users of LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--lvm2</c>
397<c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as arguments as well. 403as an argument as well.
398</p> 404</p>
399 405
400<pre caption="Running genkernel"> 406<pre caption="Running genkernel">
401# <i>genkernel all</i> 407# <i>genkernel all</i>
402</pre> 408</pre>
403 409
404<p> 410<p>
405Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and 411Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
406<e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel 412<e>initial ram disk</e> (initramfs) will be created. We will use the kernel
407and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write 413and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
408down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing 414down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
409the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after 415the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
410booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) 416booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
411before your "real" system starts up. 417before your "real" system starts up.
412</p> 418</p>
413 419
414<pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd"> 420<pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
415# <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i> 421# <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
416</pre> 422</pre>
417 423
418</body> 424</body>
419</section> 425</section>
420<section id="kernel_modules"> 426<section id="kernel_modules">
421<title>Kernel Modules</title> 427<title>Kernel Modules</title>
422 428
423<subsection> 429<subsection>
424<include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/> 430<include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>

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