/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-net-modules.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-net-modules.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.25 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Feb 13 04:40:27 2009 UTC (5 years, 2 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.24: +8 -19 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
remove references to udhcp. per flameeyes' last rites email to gentoo-dev on 12-23-2008, udhcp has been superceded by busybox.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 nightmorph 1.25 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-net-modules.xml,v 1.24 2007/11/02 20:33:55 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.5
9 swift 1.1 <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.19 <abstract>
12     Gentoo provides you flexible networking - here you are told about choosing
13     different DHCP clients, setting up bonding, bridging, VLANs and more.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 nightmorph 1.25 <version>8.4</version>
17     <date>2009-02-12</date>
18 swift 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Network Modules</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24 jkt 1.9 We now support modular networking scripts, which means we can easily add support
25     for new interface types and configuration modules while keeping compatibility
26     with existing ones.
27 swift 1.1 </p>
28    
29     <p>
30 jkt 1.9 Modules load by default if the package they need is installed. If you specify a
31     module here that doesn't have its package installed then you get an error
32     stating which package you need to install. Ideally, you only use the modules
33     setting when you have two or more packages installed that supply the same
34     service and you need to prefer one over the other.
35 swift 1.1 </p>
36    
37 vapier 1.15 <note>
38     All settings discussed here are stored in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> unless
39     otherwise specified.
40     </note>
41    
42 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Module preference">
43     <comment># Prefer iproute2 over ifconfig</comment>
44     modules=( "iproute2" )
45    
46     <comment># You can also specify other modules for an interface
47 nightmorph 1.25 # In this case we prefer pump over dhcpcd</comment>
48     modules_eth0=( "pump" )
49 swift 1.1
50     <comment># You can also specify which modules not to use - for example you may be
51     # using a supplicant or linux-wlan-ng to control wireless configuration but
52     # you still want to configure network settings per ESSID associated with.</comment>
53     modules=( "!iwconfig" )
54     </pre>
55    
56     </body>
57     </section>
58     <section>
59     <title>Interface Handlers</title>
60     <body>
61    
62     <p>
63 jkt 1.10 We provide two interface handlers presently: <c>ifconfig</c> and
64     <c>iproute2</c>. You need one of these to do any kind of network configuration.
65 swift 1.1 </p>
66    
67     <p>
68 jkt 1.10 <c>ifconfig</c> is the current Gentoo default and it's included in the system
69     profile. <c>iproute2</c> is a more powerful and flexible package, but it's not
70     included by default.
71 swift 1.1 </p>
72    
73     <pre caption="To install iproute2">
74     # <i>emerge sys-apps/iproute2</i>
75    
76     <comment># To prefer iproute2 over ifconfig if both are installed</comment>
77     modules=( "iproute2" )
78     </pre>
79    
80     <p>
81 jkt 1.10 As both <c>ifconfig</c> and <c>iproute2</c> do very similar things we allow
82     their basic configuration to work with each other. For example both the below
83     code snippet work regardless of which module you are using.
84 swift 1.1 </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="ifconfig and iproute2 examples">
87     config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2/24" )
88     config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
89    
90     <comment># We can also specify broadcast</comment>
91     config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2/24 brd 192.168.0.255" )
92     config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255" )
93     </pre>
94    
95     </body>
96     </section>
97     <section id="dhcp">
98     <title>DHCP</title>
99     <body>
100    
101     <p>
102     DHCP is a means of obtaining network information (IP address, DNS servers,
103     Gateway, etc) from a DHCP server. This means that if there is a DHCP server
104     running on the network, you just have to tell each client to use DHCP and it
105     sets up the network all by itself. Of course, you will have to configure for
106 jkt 1.10 other things like wireless, PPP or other things if required before you can use
107 swift 1.1 DHCP.
108     </p>
109    
110     <p>
111 nightmorph 1.25 DHCP can be provided by <c>dhclient</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c>, or <c>pump</c>. Each
112     DHCP module has its pros and cons - here's a quick run down.
113 swift 1.1 </p>
114    
115     <table>
116 swift 1.2 <tr>
117     <th>DHCP Module</th>
118     <th>Package</th>
119     <th>Pros</th>
120     <th>Cons</th>
121     </tr>
122     <tr>
123 jkt 1.10 <ti><c>dhclient</c></ti>
124     <ti><c>net-misc/dhcp</c></ti>
125 swift 1.2 <ti>
126 swift 1.3 Made by ISC, the same people who make the BIND DNS software. Very
127     configurable
128 swift 1.2 </ti>
129     <ti>
130 swift 1.3 Configuration is overly complex, software is quite bloated, cannot get
131     NTP servers from DHCP, does not send hostname by default
132 swift 1.2 </ti>
133     </tr>
134     <tr>
135 jkt 1.10 <ti><c>dhcpcd</c></ti>
136     <ti><c>net-misc/dhcpcd</c></ti>
137 swift 1.2 <ti>
138 nightmorph 1.20 Long time Gentoo default, no reliance on outside tools, actively developed
139     by Gentoo
140 swift 1.2 </ti>
141 nightmorph 1.20 <ti>Can be slow at times, does not yet daemonize when lease is infinite</ti>
142 swift 1.2 </tr>
143     <tr>
144 jkt 1.10 <ti><c>pump</c></ti>
145     <ti><c>net-misc/pump</c></ti>
146 swift 1.2 <ti>
147 swift 1.3 Lightweight, no reliance on outside tools
148 swift 1.2 </ti>
149     <ti>
150 swift 1.3 No longer maintained upstream, unreliable, especially over modems, cannot
151     get NIS servers from DHCP
152 swift 1.2 </ti>
153     </tr>
154 swift 1.1 </table>
155    
156     <p>
157 jkt 1.9 If you have more than one DHCP client installed, you need to specify which one
158 jkt 1.10 to use - otherwise we default to <c>dhcpcd</c> if available.
159 swift 1.1 </p>
160    
161     <p>
162 jkt 1.10 To send specific options to the DHCP module, use <c>module_eth0="..."</c>
163 flammie 1.17 <e>(change module to the DHCP module you're using - i.e. <c>dhcpcd_eth0</c>)</e>.
164 swift 1.1 </p>
165    
166     <p>
167     We try and make DHCP relatively agnostic - as such we support the following
168 jkt 1.10 commands using the <c>dhcp_eth0</c> variable. The default is not to set any of
169     them:
170 swift 1.1 </p>
171    
172     <ul>
173 jkt 1.10 <li><c>release</c> - releases the IP address for re-use</li>
174     <li><c>nodns</c> - don't overwrite <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path></li>
175     <li><c>nontp</c> - don't overwrite <path>/etc/ntp.conf</path></li>
176     <li><c>nonis</c> - don't overwrite <path>/etc/yp.conf</path></li>
177 swift 1.1 </ul>
178    
179     <pre caption="Sample DHCP configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
180     <comment># Only needed if you have more than one DHCP module installed</comment>
181     modules=( "dhcpcd" )
182    
183     config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
184     dhcpcd_eth0="-t 10" <comment># Timeout after 10 seconds</comment>
185     dhcp_eth0="release nodns nontp nonis" <comment># Only get an address</comment>
186     </pre>
187    
188     <note>
189 nightmorph 1.25 <c>dhcpcd</c> and <c>pump</c> send the current hostname to the
190 jkt 1.10 DHCP server by default so you don't need to specify this anymore.
191 swift 1.1 </note>
192    
193     </body>
194     </section>
195     <section>
196 nightmorph 1.23 <title>ADSL with PPPoE/PPPoA</title>
197 swift 1.1 <body>
198    
199     <p>
200     First we need to install the ADSL software.
201     </p>
202    
203 nightmorph 1.22 <pre caption="Install the ppp package">
204     # <i>emerge net-dialup/ppp</i>
205 swift 1.1 </pre>
206    
207 nightmorph 1.22 <note>
208 nightmorph 1.23 If you need PPPoA, then make sure to use >=<c>baselayout-1.12.x</c>.
209 nightmorph 1.22 </note>
210    
211     <p>
212 nightmorph 1.23 Second, create the PPP net script and the net script for the ethernet interface
213     to be used by PPP:
214 nightmorph 1.22 </p>
215    
216 nightmorph 1.23 <pre caption="Creating the PPP and ethernet scripts">
217 nightmorph 1.22 # <i>ln -s /etc/init.d/net.lo /etc/init.d/net.ppp0</i>
218 nightmorph 1.23 # <i>ln -s /etc/init.d/net.lo /etc/init.d/net.eth0</i>
219 nightmorph 1.22 </pre>
220 swift 1.1
221     <p>
222 nightmorph 1.23 Be sure to set RC_NET_STRICT_CHECKING="yes" in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
223     </p>
224    
225     <p>
226 nightmorph 1.22 Now we need to configure <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
227 swift 1.1 </p>
228    
229 nightmorph 1.22 <pre caption="A basic PPPoE setup">
230 nightmorph 1.23 config_eth0=( null ) <comment>(Specify your ethernet interface)</comment>
231 nightmorph 1.22 config_ppp0=( "ppp" )
232 nightmorph 1.23 link_ppp0="eth0" <comment>(Specify your ethernet interface)</comment>
233 nightmorph 1.22 plugins_ppp0=( "pppoe" )
234     username_ppp0='user'
235     password_ppp0='password'
236 nightmorph 1.23 pppd_ppp0=(
237     "noauth"
238     "defaultroute"
239     "usepeerdns"
240     "holdoff 3"
241     "child-timeout 60"
242     "lcp-echo-interval 15"
243     "lcp-echo-failure 3"
244     noaccomp noccp nobsdcomp nodeflate nopcomp novj novjccomp
245     )
246    
247     depend_ppp0() {
248     need net.eth0
249     }
250 swift 1.1 </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253 nightmorph 1.22 You can also set your password in <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path>.
254 swift 1.1 </p>
255    
256 nightmorph 1.22 <pre caption="Sample /etc/ppp/pap-secrets">
257 swift 1.1 <comment># The * is important</comment>
258 swift 1.4 "username" * "password"
259 swift 1.1 </pre>
260    
261 nightmorph 1.23 <p>
262     If you use PPPoE with a USB modem you'll need to emerge <c>br2684ctl</c>. Please
263     read <path>/usr/portage/net-dialup/speedtouch-usb/files/README</path> for
264     information on how to properly configure it.
265     </p>
266    
267 nightmorph 1.22 <impo>
268     Please carefully read the section on ADSL and PPP in
269     <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. It contains many more detailed
270     explanations of all the settings your particular PPP setup will likely need.
271     </impo>
272    
273 swift 1.1 </body>
274     </section>
275     <section id="apipa">
276     <title>APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing)</title>
277     <body>
278    
279     <p>
280 jkt 1.9 APIPA tries to find a free address in the range 169.254.0.0-169.254.255.255 by
281     arping a random address in that range on the interface. If no reply is found
282     then we assign that address to the interface.
283 swift 1.1 </p>
284    
285     <p>
286 jkt 1.9 This is only useful for LANs where there is no DHCP server and you don't connect
287     directly to the internet and all other computers use APIPA.
288 swift 1.1 </p>
289    
290     <p>
291 jkt 1.10 For APIPA support, emerge <c>net-misc/iputils</c> or <c>net-analyzer/arping</c>.
292 swift 1.1 </p>
293    
294     <pre caption="APIPA configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
295     <comment># Try DHCP first - if that fails then fallback to APIPA</comment>
296     config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
297     fallback_eth0=( "apipa" )
298    
299     <comment># Just use APIPA</comment>
300     config_eth0=( "apipa" )
301     </pre>
302    
303     </body>
304     </section>
305     <section>
306     <title>Bonding</title>
307     <body>
308    
309     <p>
310 jkt 1.10 For link bonding/trunking emerge <c>net-misc/ifenslave</c>.
311 swift 1.1 </p>
312    
313     <p>
314 jkt 1.9 Bonding is used to increase network bandwidth. If you have two network cards
315     going to the same network, you can bond them together so your applications see
316     just one interface but they really use both network cards.
317 swift 1.1 </p>
318    
319     <pre caption="bonding configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
320 jkt 1.13 <comment># To bond interfaces together</comment>
321 swift 1.1 slaves_bond0="eth0 eth1 eth2"
322    
323     <comment># You may not want to assign an IP to the bonded interface</comment>
324     config_bond0=( "null" )
325    
326     <comment># Depend on eth0, eth1 and eth2 as they may require extra configuration</comment>
327     depend_bond0() {
328 swift 1.4 need net.eth0 net.eth1 net.eth2
329 swift 1.1 }
330     </pre>
331    
332     </body>
333     </section>
334     <section>
335     <title>Bridging (802.1d support)</title>
336     <body>
337    
338     <p>
339 jkt 1.10 For bridging support emerge <c>net-misc/bridge-utils</c>.
340 swift 1.1 </p>
341    
342     <p>
343 jkt 1.9 Bridging is used to join networks together. For example, you may have a server
344     that connects to the internet via an ADSL modem and a wireless access card to
345     enable other computers to connect to the internet via the ADSL modem. You could
346     create a bridge to join the two interfaces together.
347 swift 1.1 </p>
348    
349     <pre caption="Bridge configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
350 nightmorph 1.24 <comment># Configure the bridge - "man brctl" for more details</comment>
351 swift 1.1 brctl_br0=( "setfd 0" "sethello 0" "stp off" )
352    
353     <comment># To add ports to bridge br0</comment>
354     bridge_br0="eth0 eth1"
355    
356     <comment># You need to configure the ports to null values so dhcp does not get started</comment>
357     config_eth0=( "null" )
358     config_eth1=( "null" )
359    
360     <comment># Finally give the bridge an address - you could use DHCP as well</comment>
361     config_br0=( "192.168.0.1/24" )
362    
363     <comment># Depend on eth0 and eth1 as they may require extra configuration</comment>
364     depend_br0() {
365 swift 1.4 need net.eth0 net.eth1
366 swift 1.1 }
367     </pre>
368    
369     <impo>
370 jkt 1.10 For using some bridge setups, you may need to consult the <uri
371     link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#variable_name">variable name</uri> documentation.
372 swift 1.1 </impo>
373    
374     </body>
375     </section>
376     <section>
377     <title>MAC Address</title>
378     <body>
379    
380     <p>
381 rane 1.11 You don't need to emerge anything for changing the MAC address of your
382     interface if you have <c>sys-apps/baselayout-1.11.14</c> or newer and want to
383 fox2mike 1.12 change to a specific MAC address. However, if you need to change to a random MAC
384     address or have a baselayout older than the version mentioned above, you have
385     to emerge <c>net-analyzer/macchanger</c> to be able to make use of this feature.
386 swift 1.1 </p>
387    
388     <pre caption="MAC Address change example">
389     <comment># To set the MAC address of the interface</comment>
390     mac_eth0="00:11:22:33:44:55"
391    
392     <comment># To randomize the last 3 bytes only</comment>
393     mac_eth0="random-ending"
394    
395 flammie 1.17 <comment># To randomize between the same physical type of connection (e.g. fibre,
396 swift 1.1 # copper, wireless) , all vendors</comment>
397     mac_eth0="random-samekind"
398    
399 flammie 1.17 <comment># To randomize between any physical type of connection (e.g. fibre, copper,
400 swift 1.1 # wireless) , all vendors</comment>
401     mac_eth0="random-anykind"
402    
403     <comment># Full randomization - WARNING: some MAC addresses generated by this may
404     # NOT act as expected</comment>
405     mac_eth0="random-full"
406     </pre>
407    
408     </body>
409     </section>
410     <section>
411     <title>Tunnelling</title>
412     <body>
413    
414     <p>
415 jkt 1.9 You don't need to emerge anything for tunnelling as the interface handler can do
416     it for you.
417 swift 1.1 </p>
418    
419     <pre caption="Tunnelling configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
420     <comment># For GRE tunnels</comment>
421     iptunnel_vpn0="mode gre remote 207.170.82.1 key 0xffffffff ttl 255"
422    
423     <comment># For IPIP tunnels</comment>
424     iptunnel_vpn0="mode ipip remote 207.170.82.2 ttl 255"
425    
426     <comment># To configure the interface</comment>
427     config_vpn0=( "192.168.0.2 peer 192.168.1.1" )
428     </pre>
429    
430     </body>
431     </section>
432     <section>
433     <title>VLAN (802.1q support)</title>
434     <body>
435    
436     <p>
437 jkt 1.10 For VLAN support, emerge <c>net-misc/vconfig</c>.
438 swift 1.1 </p>
439    
440 swift 1.2 <p>
441 jkt 1.9 Virtual LAN is a group of network devices that behave as if they were connected
442     to a single network segment - even though they may not be. VLAN members can only
443     see members of the same VLAN even though they may share the same physical
444     network.
445 swift 1.1 </p>
446    
447     <pre caption="VLAN configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
448     <comment># Specify the VLAN numbers for the interface like so</comment>
449     <comment># Please ensure your VLAN IDs are NOT zero-padded</comment>
450     vlans_eth0="1 2"
451    
452     <comment># You can also configure the VLAN</comment>
453     <comment># see for vconfig man page for more details</comment>
454     vconfig_eth0=( "set_name_type VLAN_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD" )
455     vconfig_vlan1=( "set_flag 1" "set_egress_map 2 6" )
456    
457     <comment># Configure the interface as usual</comment>
458     config_vlan1=( "172.16.3.1 netmask 255.255.254.0" )
459     config_vlan2=( "172.16.2.1 netmask 255.255.254.0" )
460     </pre>
461    
462     <impo>
463 jkt 1.10 For using some VLAN setups, you may need to consult the <uri
464     link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#variable_name">variable name</uri> documentation.
465 swift 1.1 </impo>
466    
467     </body>
468     </section>
469    
470     </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20